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Open AccessArticle

Microflow Nanoprecipitation of Positively Charged Gastroresistant Polymer Nanoparticles of Eudragit® RS100: A Study of Fluid Dynamics and Chemical Parameters

1
Department of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, Aragon Institute of Nanoscience (INA), Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragon-ICMA, University of Zaragoza, 50018 Zaragoza, Spain
2
Networking Research Center on Bioengineering Biomaterials and Nanomedicine (CIBER-BBN), 28029 Madrid, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2020, 13(13), 2925; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13132925
Received: 19 May 2020 / Revised: 19 June 2020 / Accepted: 28 June 2020 / Published: 30 June 2020
The objective of the present work was to produce gastroresistant Eudragit® RS100 nanoparticles by a reproducible synthesis approach that ensured mono-disperse nanoparticles under the size of 100 nm. Batch and micromixing nanoprecipitation approaches were selected to produce the demanded nanoparticles, identifying the critical parameters affecting the synthesis process. To shed some light on the formulation of the targeted nanoparticles, the effects of particle size and homogeneity of fluid dynamics, and physicochemical parameters such as polymer concentration, type of solvent, ratio of solvent to antisolvent, and total flow rate were studied. The physicochemical characteristics of resulting nanoparticles were studied applying dynamic light scattering (DLS) particle size analysis and electron microscopy imaging. Nanoparticles produced using a micromixer demonstrated a narrower and more homogenous distribution than the ones obtained under similar conditions in conventional batch reactors. Besides, fluid dynamics ensured that the best mixing conditions were achieved at the highest flow rate. It was concluded that nucleation and growth events must also be considered to avoid uncontrolled nanoparticle growth and evolution at the collection vial. Further, rifampicin-encapsulated nanoparticles were prepared using both approaches, demonstrating that the micromixing-assisted approach provided an excellent control of the particle size and polydispersity index. Not only the micromixing-assisted nanoprecipitation promoted a remarkable control in the nanoparticle formulation, but also it enhanced drug encapsulation efficiency and loading, as well as productivity. To the best of our knowledge, this was the very first time that drug-loaded Eudragit® RS100 nanoparticles (NPs) were produced in a continuous fashion under 100 nm (16.5 ± 4.3 nm) using microreactor technology. Furthermore, we performed a detailed analysis of the influence of various fluid dynamics and physicochemical parameters on the size and uniformity of the resulting nanoparticles. According to these findings, the proposed methodology can be a useful approach to synthesize a myriad of nanoparticles of alternative polymers.
Keywords: nanoparticle; nanoprecipitation; micromixing; antibiotic nanoparticle; nanoprecipitation; micromixing; antibiotic
MDPI and ACS Style

Yus, C.; Arruebo, M.; Irusta, S.; Sebastián, V. Microflow Nanoprecipitation of Positively Charged Gastroresistant Polymer Nanoparticles of Eudragit® RS100: A Study of Fluid Dynamics and Chemical Parameters. Materials 2020, 13, 2925.

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