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Open AccessArticle

Ilmenite Mud Waste as an Additive for Frost Resistance in Sustainable Concrete

Instytut Techniki Budowlanej, 00-611 Warsaw, Poland
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Materials 2020, 13(13), 2904; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13132904
Received: 22 May 2020 / Revised: 16 June 2020 / Accepted: 24 June 2020 / Published: 28 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recycled Concrete with Waste and By-Products)
Sustainable development leads to the production of building materials that are safer for the environment. One of the ways to achieve sustainability in materials is the addition of industrial wastes and by-products, especially to concrete. However, the addition of waste to concrete often decreases its durability and the scope of aggression of the environment in which the concrete is used has to be reduced. Making sustainable concrete, which is also durable in more aggressive environments, is rather difficult. This article presents the results of tests performed on concrete containing ilmenite mud waste from the production of titanium dioxide, which was exposed to frost aggression with and without de-icing salts. The results have shown that a sustainable and frost resistant concrete can be made. After 200 freeze–thaw cycles, the compressive strength of the tested concretes decreased by less than 4%. Concretes were highly resistant for scaling and after 112 freeze–thaw cycles in water with de-icing salt, the scaled mass was less than 0.02 kg/m2. The air void distribution has also been analyzed. The results suited the requirements for frost resistance concrete and were similar to those obtained for a reference concrete with fly ash. The examination of the microstructure using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has not shown any potential risks that might affect the durability of concrete. Particles of waste were thoroughly combined in the binder and some of its constituents seem to be an active part of the cement matrix. Long-term tests of shrinkage (360 days) have not shown any excessive values that would differ from the reference concrete with fly ash. The presented results have shown that sustainable concrete containing ilmenite mud waste from the production of titanium dioxide might also be resistant to frost aggression. View Full-Text
Keywords: ilmenite mud; waste; concrete; titanium dioxide; frost resistance ilmenite mud; waste; concrete; titanium dioxide; frost resistance
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Chyliński, F.; Kuczyński, K. Ilmenite Mud Waste as an Additive for Frost Resistance in Sustainable Concrete. Materials 2020, 13, 2904.

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