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Open AccessArticle

Characterization of the Mechanical Behavior of a Lead Alloy, from Quasi-Static to Dynamic Loading for a Wide Range of Temperatures

1
French-German research institute of Saint-Louis, 5 rue du Général Cassagnou, 68300 Saint-Louis, France
2
Laboratory of Microstructure Studies and Mechanics of Materials, UMR-CNRS 7239, Lorraine University, 7 rue Félix Savart, BP 15082, 57073 Metz, France
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2020, 13(10), 2357; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13102357
Received: 22 April 2020 / Revised: 14 May 2020 / Accepted: 15 May 2020 / Published: 20 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamic Behaviour of Metallic Materials)
The current needs in terms of ballistic protection for armed forces require an almost constant improvement in performance to face the constantly evolving threats and scenarios. Ballistic tests are conventionally carried out in order to assess and validate the levels of protection. The challenge is to be able to set up a digital protocol and only carry out final validation tests. Indeed, the advantage of digital simulation lies in the possibility of being able to evaluate a wide variety of configurations. In order to obtain reliable results, it is necessary to use sufficiently precise material behavior models to transcribe the phenomena observed during the impact. Our study focuses on the behavior of a small caliber ammunition with a ductile core impacting personal protection. More particularly on the mechanical behavior of the lead alloy core. Thus, compression tests have been carried out on a wide range of deformation rates, from quasi-static behavior to dynamic regime, at different temperatures. The study in dynamic conditions was carried out using split Hopkinson pressure bars. Due to the material properties, the experimental device had to be adapted in order to optimize the propagation of the waves allowing to measure signals (elastic waves). These tests demonstrate the dependency of the stress with strain rate and temperature. Dynamic restoration and recrystallization phenomena, characteristic of a material deformed in its hot working area, have also been identified. The associated oscillations due to Pochhammer–Chree effect, observable on the stress–strain curves, constitute the major problem for the implementation of behavioral models. Finally, a constitutive model sensitive to strain rate and temperature is investigated for ballistic purposes. View Full-Text
Keywords: lead alloy; dynamic mechanical behavior; split Hopkinson pressure bar; ballistic application; dynamic recrystallization; dynamic restoration lead alloy; dynamic mechanical behavior; split Hopkinson pressure bar; ballistic application; dynamic recrystallization; dynamic restoration
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MDPI and ACS Style

Coget, Y.; Demarty, Y.; Rusinek, A. Characterization of the Mechanical Behavior of a Lead Alloy, from Quasi-Static to Dynamic Loading for a Wide Range of Temperatures. Materials 2020, 13, 2357.

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