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Article

TEMPO-Nanocellulose/Ca2+ Hydrogels: Ibuprofen Drug Diffusion and In Vitro Cytocompatibility

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Department of Chemistry, Materials, and Chemical Engineering “G. Natta”—Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano, Italy
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INSTM, National Consortium of Materials Science and Technology, Local Unit Politecnico di Milano, 20133 Milano, Italy
3
Istituto di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche (SCITEC-CNR), Via A. Corti 12, 20133 Milano, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2020, 13(1), 183; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13010183
Received: 13 December 2019 / Revised: 28 December 2019 / Accepted: 29 December 2019 / Published: 2 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stimuli-Responsive Hydrogels and Microgels)
Stable hydrogels with tunable rheological properties were prepared by adding Ca2+ ions to aqueous dispersions of 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine 1-oxyl (TEMPO)-oxidized and ultra-sonicated cellulose nanofibers (TOUS-CNFs). The gelation occurred by interaction among polyvalent cations and the carboxylic units introduced on TOUS-CNFs during the oxidation process. Both dynamic viscosity values and pseudoplastic rheological behaviour increased by increasing the Ca2+ concentration, confirming the cross-linking action of the bivalent cation. The hydrogels were proved to be suitable controlled release systems by measuring the diffusion coefficient of a drug model (ibuprofen, IB) by high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. IB was used both as free molecule and as a 1:1 pre-formed complex with β-cyclodextrin (IB/β-CD), showing in this latter case a lower diffusion coefficient. Finally, the cytocompatibility of the TOUS-CNFs/Ca2+ hydrogels was demonstrated in vitro by indirect and direct tests conducted on a L929 murine fibroblast cell line, achieving a percentage number of viable cells after 7 days higher than 70%. View Full-Text
Keywords: TEMPO-oxidized nanocellulose; hydrogel; biomaterials; drug release; cytocompatibility TEMPO-oxidized nanocellulose; hydrogel; biomaterials; drug release; cytocompatibility
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MDPI and ACS Style

Fiorati, A.; Contessi Negrini, N.; Baschenis, E.; Altomare, L.; Faré, S.; Giacometti Schieroni, A.; Piovani, D.; Mendichi, R.; Ferro, M.; Castiglione, F.; Mele, A.; Punta, C.; Melone, L. TEMPO-Nanocellulose/Ca2+ Hydrogels: Ibuprofen Drug Diffusion and In Vitro Cytocompatibility. Materials 2020, 13, 183. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13010183

AMA Style

Fiorati A, Contessi Negrini N, Baschenis E, Altomare L, Faré S, Giacometti Schieroni A, Piovani D, Mendichi R, Ferro M, Castiglione F, Mele A, Punta C, Melone L. TEMPO-Nanocellulose/Ca2+ Hydrogels: Ibuprofen Drug Diffusion and In Vitro Cytocompatibility. Materials. 2020; 13(1):183. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13010183

Chicago/Turabian Style

Fiorati, Andrea, Nicola Contessi Negrini, Elena Baschenis, Lina Altomare, Silvia Faré, Alberto Giacometti Schieroni, Daniele Piovani, Raniero Mendichi, Monica Ferro, Franca Castiglione, Andrea Mele, Carlo Punta, and Lucio Melone. 2020. "TEMPO-Nanocellulose/Ca2+ Hydrogels: Ibuprofen Drug Diffusion and In Vitro Cytocompatibility" Materials 13, no. 1: 183. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13010183

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