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Materials 2019, 12(6), 855; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12060855

Influence of Process Fluctuations on Residual Stress Evolution in Rotary Swaging of Steel Tubes

1
Bremen Institute for Mechanical Engineering-bime, University of Bremen, Badgasteiner Str. 1, 28359 Bremen, Germany
2
Leibniz Institute for Materials Engineering-IWT, Badgasteiner Str. 3, 28359 Bremen, Germany
3
MAPEX Center for Materials and Processing, University of Bremen, Bibliothekstr. 1, 28359 Bremen, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 February 2019 / Revised: 6 March 2019 / Accepted: 8 March 2019 / Published: 14 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Manufacturing Processes and Systems)
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Abstract

Infeed rotary swaging is a cold forming production technique to reduce the diameter of axisymmetric components. The forming is achieved discontinuously by a series of radial strokes that are spread over the shell of the part. Due to tolerances within the rotary swaging machine, these strokes perform individually and the resulting stroke pattern is not homogeneous with regards to circumferential and longitudinal distribution. Nevertheless, in combination with the high number of performed strokes and the large contact area between the dies and the part, the external part properties, such as diameter, roundness and surface roughness, show even values along the finished part. In contrast, strength-defining internal part properties, like microstructure and residual stress components, are more sensitive to the actual pattern and temporal sequence of the individual strokes, which is investigated in this study. The impact of process fluctuations during the conventional process, which are induced by the tolerances of machine tool components, was verified by numerical simulations, physical tests and measurements of residual stress distributions at the surface and at depth. Furthermore, a method is introduced to maintain the stroke following angle ∆φ at zero by flat dies, and thus the actual pattern and temporal sequence of the strokes was homogenized. The results show that the residual stress fluctuations at the surface could be controlled and reduced. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the depth profile of the residual stresses at a distance of 300 µm from the surface developed independently from the process fluctuations. View Full-Text
Keywords: finite element method; incremental bulk forming; cold forging; X-ray diffraction finite element method; incremental bulk forming; cold forging; X-ray diffraction
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Ishkina, S.; Charni, D.; Herrmann, M.; Liu, Y.; Epp, J.; Schenck, C.; Kuhfuss, B.; Zoch, H.-W. Influence of Process Fluctuations on Residual Stress Evolution in Rotary Swaging of Steel Tubes. Materials 2019, 12, 855.

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