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Article

Conductive Cellulose based Foam Formed 3D Shapes—From Innovation to Designed Prototype

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Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Tampere University, P.O. Box 589, 33101 Tampere, Finland
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Department of Design, Aalto University, P.O. Box 31000, 00076 Aalto, Finland
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VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd, P.O. Box 1000, 02044 VTT, Finland
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Faculty of Medicine and Life Sciences, Tampere University; P.O. Box 589, 33101 Tampere, Finland
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2019, 12(3), 430; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12030430
Received: 7 December 2018 / Revised: 17 January 2019 / Accepted: 18 January 2019 / Published: 31 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanocellulose-Based Advanced Materials)
In this article, we introduce for the first time, a method to manufacture cellulose based electrically conductive non-woven three-dimensional (3D) structures using the foam forming technology. The manufacturing is carried out using a minimum amount of processing steps, materials, and hazardous chemicals. The optimized solution applies a single surfactant type and a single predefined portion for the two main processing steps: (1) the dispersing of nanocellulose (NC) and carbon nanotubes (CNT) and (2) the foam forming process. The final material system has a concentration of the used surfactant that is not only sufficient to form a stable and homogeneous nanoparticle dispersion, but it also results in stable foam in foam forming. In this way, the advantages of the foam forming process can be maximized for this application. The cellulose based composite material has a highly even distribution of CNTs over the NC network, resulting a conductivity level of 7.7 S/m, which increased to the value 8.0 S/m after surfactant removal by acetone washing. Also, the applicability and a design product case ‘Salmiakki’ were studied where the advantages of the material system were validated for a heating element application. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanocellulose; carbon nanotube; foam forming; conductivity; Salmiakki nanocellulose; carbon nanotube; foam forming; conductivity; Salmiakki
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MDPI and ACS Style

Siljander, S.; Keinänen, P.; Ivanova, A.; Lehmonen, J.; Tuukkanen, S.; Kanerva, M.; Björkqvist, T. Conductive Cellulose based Foam Formed 3D Shapes—From Innovation to Designed Prototype. Materials 2019, 12, 430. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12030430

AMA Style

Siljander S, Keinänen P, Ivanova A, Lehmonen J, Tuukkanen S, Kanerva M, Björkqvist T. Conductive Cellulose based Foam Formed 3D Shapes—From Innovation to Designed Prototype. Materials. 2019; 12(3):430. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12030430

Chicago/Turabian Style

Siljander, Sanna, Pasi Keinänen, Anastasia Ivanova, Jani Lehmonen, Sampo Tuukkanen, Mikko Kanerva, and Tomas Björkqvist. 2019. "Conductive Cellulose based Foam Formed 3D Shapes—From Innovation to Designed Prototype" Materials 12, no. 3: 430. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12030430

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