- freely available
Materials 2019, 12(18), 2882; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12182882
2. Materials and Experiments
2.2. Mixture Proportion and Sample Preparation
2.3. Long-Term Cyclic Loading Experiment
2.4. Sulfate Attack Experiment
2.4.1. W-D Cyclic Experiment
2.4.2. Compressive Strength Experiment and Mass Measurement
3. Experimental Results and Discussions
3.1. Fatigue Performance of Structural EPS Concrete
3.1.1. Dynamic Stress-Strain Hysteresis Curves
3.1.2. Damping Ratio
3.1.3. Dynamic Elastic Modulus
3.2. Sulfate Resistance of Structural EPS Concrete
3.2.1. Sulfate Resistance Level of Structural EPS Concrete
3.2.2. Variation of the Mass of Structural EPS Concrete
3.2.3. Evolution of Compressive Strength of Structural EPS Concrete
3.2.4. Relationship between the Evolution of Compressive Strength and Variation of Mass
- Based on the dynamic stress–strain hysteresis curve of structural EPS concrete under long-term cyclic loading, the dynamic stress–strain curve of structural EPS concrete basically overlapped with each other under the same load and frequency, which indicated that the structural EPS concrete had good stability under a dynamic load.
- Compared with plain concretes of the same strength level, the damping ratio of structural EPS concrete was larger, and the dynamic elastic modulus was smaller, which indicated that structural EPS concrete had a superior performance of vibration attenuation, toughness.
- A slight crack occurred on the surface of the concrete specimen at about the cyclic number of 15.7 million. However, the relevant dynamic properties could remain stable, which proved the fatigue stability of the structural EPS concrete.
- The sulfate resistance of structural EPS concrete was evaluated as the highest level regulated by GB/T 50082  owing to the addition of fly ash, low water:binder ratio, and the incorporation of EPS beads. The structural EPS concrete exhibited a much higher sulfate resistance than plain concrete on the basis of the previous literature.
- The indices Δf and ΔmB were presented to evaluate the variation of compressive strength and mass of structural EPS concretes, which could be used to describe the damage extent of structural EPS concrete under sulfate attack. XRD analysis illustrated that the products generated in the specimens were the reasons for the evolution of the compressive strength and mass. There was an approximately linear relationship between these two indices, which indicated that ΔmB could be substituted for Δf to evaluate the degree of structural EPS concrete damage under sulfate attack for a more convenient acquiring method and no damage when measuring.
Conflicts of Interest
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|Class F Fly Ash|
|Chemical Composition (%)|
|Silicon dioxide (SiO2)||58.27|
|Aluminum oxide (Al2O3)||23.65|
|Ferric oxide (Fe2O3)||6.28|
|Calcium oxide (CaO)||4.18|
|Magnesium oxide (MgO)||1.52|
|Sulfur trioxide (SO3)||0.33|
|Potassium oxide (K2O)||1.95|
|sodium oxide (Na2O)||1.06|
|Loss on ignition (LOI), %||0.27|
|Cement||Fly Ash||Water||Coarse Aggregate (Type A)||Coarse Aggregate (Type B)||Sand||SP||VMA||PE||EPS Volume|
|Stage||Amplitudes of the Bias Force||Frequencies||Accumulated Cyclic Numbers, n|
|Ⅰ||30 kN||5 Hz||0–2,500,000|
|Ⅱ||40 kN||5 Hz||2,500,000–3,500,000|
|Ⅲ||40 kN||10 Hz||3,500,000–16,350,000|
|Ⅳ||30 kN||10 Hz||16,350,000–22,000,000|
|Cyclic Numbers, n||fBn/MPa||fCn/MPa||Kf|
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