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Tissue Constructs with Human Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Treat Bone Defects in Rats

1
Department of Internal Medicine, Ribeirão Preto Medical School, University of São Paulo (USP), Ribeirão Preto 14040-900, SP, Brazil
2
Graduate Program in Biomedical Sciences, University Centre of Hermínio Ometto Foundation, Araras 13607339, SP, Brazil
3
School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, UK
4
Department of Ophthalmology, Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Ribeirão Preto Medical School, University of São Paulo (USP), Ribeirão Preto 14040-900, SP, Brazil
5
Department of Chemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
6
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta 31527, Egypt
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2019, 12(14), 2268; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12142268
Received: 28 March 2019 / Revised: 11 July 2019 / Accepted: 11 July 2019 / Published: 15 July 2019
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PDF [6610 KB, uploaded 15 July 2019]
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Abstract

The use of porous scaffolds created by additive manufacturing is considered a viable approach for the regeneration of critical-size bone defects. This paper investigates the xenotransplantation of polycaprolactone (PCL) tissue constructs seeded with differentiated and undifferentiated human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hADSCs) to treat calvarial critical-sized defect in Wistar rats. PCL scaffolds without cells were also considered. In vitro and in vivo biological evaluations were performed to assess the feasibility of these different approaches. In the case of cell seeded scaffolds, it was possible to observe the presence of hADSCs in the rat tissue contributing directly (osteoblasts) and indirectly (stimulation by paracrine factors) to tissue formation, organization and mineralization. The presence of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) in the rat tissue treated with cell-seeded PCL scaffolds suggests that the paracrine factors of undifferentiated hADSC cells could stimulate BMP-2 production by surrounding cells, leading to osteogenesis. Moreover, BMP-2 acts synergistically with growth factors to induce angiogenesis, leading to higher numbers of blood vessels in the groups containing undifferentiated and differentiated hADSCs. View Full-Text
Keywords: adipose-derived stem cell; bone repair; biofabrication; tissue engineering adipose-derived stem cell; bone repair; biofabrication; tissue engineering
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Caetano, G.; Wang, W.; Murashima, A.; Passarini, J.R., Jr.; Bagne, L.; Leite, M.; Hyppolito, M.; Al-Deyab, S.; El-Newehy, M.; Bártolo, P.; Frade, M.A.C. Tissue Constructs with Human Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Treat Bone Defects in Rats. Materials 2019, 12, 2268.

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