Special Issue "Advance in Implantology, Bone Biomaterials and Regenerative Procedures"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Biomaterials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2018).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Antonio Scarano
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Medical, Oral and Biotechnological Sciences and CeSi-MeT, University of Chieti-Pescara, 66100 Chieti, Italy
Interests: biomaterials; implant surface; implant-abtment connection; bone regeneration; facial soft tissues augmentation

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Recently, bone biomaterials have found extensive use in several surgical protocols and regenerative procedures in maxillofacial surgery and orthopedics.

The historic development, current protocols therapy standards, and a deep knowledge of the biological complexity of the physiopathology of bone tissue play key roles in optimizing the treatment of bone defects and to select suitable graft materials.

The purpose of this Special Issue, "Advances in Bone Biomaterials and Regenerative Procedures", is structured by the aim to lead progresses in the field of mineral graft science, including surgical strategies, new findings, and latest promising methods involving the science of biomaterials.

Strategies and protocols for bone augmentation protocols have been continuously evolving in the last few years, involving the high availability of knowledge and several advanced technologies.

The goal of the latest research in biomaterials science comprises the challenges and future directions of the discipline regarding the investigations of new and improved grafts and molecules with biomimetic and biological proprieties, oriented at a predictive functional rehabilitation of jaws bone defects.

Prof. Dr. Antonio Scarano
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • bone reconstruction
  • bone repair
  • biomimetic scaffold
  • bone tissue augmentation

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Tissue Constructs with Human Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Treat Bone Defects in Rats
Materials 2019, 12(14), 2268; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12142268 - 15 Jul 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
The use of porous scaffolds created by additive manufacturing is considered a viable approach for the regeneration of critical-size bone defects. This paper investigates the xenotransplantation of polycaprolactone (PCL) tissue constructs seeded with differentiated and undifferentiated human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hADSCs) to [...] Read more.
The use of porous scaffolds created by additive manufacturing is considered a viable approach for the regeneration of critical-size bone defects. This paper investigates the xenotransplantation of polycaprolactone (PCL) tissue constructs seeded with differentiated and undifferentiated human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hADSCs) to treat calvarial critical-sized defect in Wistar rats. PCL scaffolds without cells were also considered. In vitro and in vivo biological evaluations were performed to assess the feasibility of these different approaches. In the case of cell seeded scaffolds, it was possible to observe the presence of hADSCs in the rat tissue contributing directly (osteoblasts) and indirectly (stimulation by paracrine factors) to tissue formation, organization and mineralization. The presence of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) in the rat tissue treated with cell-seeded PCL scaffolds suggests that the paracrine factors of undifferentiated hADSC cells could stimulate BMP-2 production by surrounding cells, leading to osteogenesis. Moreover, BMP-2 acts synergistically with growth factors to induce angiogenesis, leading to higher numbers of blood vessels in the groups containing undifferentiated and differentiated hADSCs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Fabrication and Microstructure of Laminated HAP–45S5 Bioglass Ceramics by Spark Plasma Sintering
Materials 2019, 12(3), 484; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12030484 - 04 Feb 2019
Abstract
Hydroxyapatite (HAP) has excellent biocompatibility with living bone tissue and does not cause defensive body reactions, therefore, it has become one of the most widely used calcium phosphate materials in dental and medical fields. However, its poor mechanical properties have been a substantial [...] Read more.
Hydroxyapatite (HAP) has excellent biocompatibility with living bone tissue and does not cause defensive body reactions, therefore, it has become one of the most widely used calcium phosphate materials in dental and medical fields. However, its poor mechanical properties have been a substantial challenge in the application of HAP for the replacement of load-bearing or large bone defects. Laminated HAP–45S5 bioglass ceramics composites were prepared by the spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique. The interface structures between the HAP and 45S5 bioglass layers and the mechanical properties of the laminated composites were investigated. It was demonstrated that there was mutual transfer and exchange of Ca and Na atoms at the interface between 45S5 bioglass/HAP laminated layers, which contributed considerably to the interfacial bonding. Due from the laminated structure and strong interface bonding, laminated HAP–45S5 bioglass is recommended for structural applications. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Literature Review Study on Atomic Ions Dissolution of Titanium and Its Alloys in Implant Dentistry
Materials 2019, 12(3), 368; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12030368 - 24 Jan 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
This review of literature paper was done in order to conduct a review of the literature and an assessment of the effects of titanium implant corrosion on peri-implant health and success in the oral environment. This paper evaluates and critically reviews the findings [...] Read more.
This review of literature paper was done in order to conduct a review of the literature and an assessment of the effects of titanium implant corrosion on peri-implant health and success in the oral environment. This paper evaluates and critically reviews the findings of the multiple in-depth in vivo and in vitro studies that are related to corrosion aspects of the titanium and its alloys. A literature survey was conducted by electronic search in Medline and studies that were published between 1940 and August 2018 were selected. The search terms used were types of corrosion, corrosion of titanium implants, titanium corrosion, metal ion release from the titanium implants, fretting and pitting corrosion, implant corrosion, peri implantitis, and corrosion. Both in vivo and in vitro studies were also included in the review. The search and selection resulted in 64 articles. These articles were divided on the basis of their context to different kinds of corrosion related to titanium dental implants. It is evident that metal ions are released from titanium and titanium alloy dental implants as a result of corrosion. Corrosion of implants is multifactorial, including electrical, chemical, and mechanical factors, which have an effect on the peri-implant tissues and microbiota. The literature surveyed showed that corrosion related to titanium and its alloys has an effect on the health of peri-implant soft and hard tissue and the long term survival of metal dental implants. It can be concluded that presence of the long-term corrosion reaction along with continuous corrosion leads to the release of ions into the peri-implant tissue but also to a disintegration of the implant that contribute to material fatigue and even fracture of the abutments and implant body or both. This combined impact of the corrosion, bacterial activity, chemical reactions, and functional stresses are to be looked at as important factors of implant failure. The findings can be used to explore the possible strategies of research to investigate the biological impact of implant materials. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Finite Element Analysis of Novel Separable Fixture for Easy Retrievement in Case with Peri-Implantitis
Materials 2019, 12(2), 235; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12020235 - 11 Jan 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
Peri-implantitis is a common complication following dental implant placement, which may lead to bone loss and fixation failure. With the conventional fixture, it is difficult to perfectly clear-up the infection. To solve this, we have designed a separable fixture of which the top [...] Read more.
Peri-implantitis is a common complication following dental implant placement, which may lead to bone loss and fixation failure. With the conventional fixture, it is difficult to perfectly clear-up the infection. To solve this, we have designed a separable fixture of which the top part is replaceable. This study aimed to compare the structural and biomechanical stability of the separable and conventional fixture. A single surgical model corresponding to the first molar in a virtual mandible model and conventional/separable implants were reproduced to compare the biomechanical characteristics of the implants using finite element analysis (FEA). The loading condition was 200N preload in the first step, and 100N (Axial), 100N (15°), and 30N (45°) in the second step. The stress distribution on the cortical bone in the separable implant was lower than the conventional implant. In particular, the Peak von Mises Stress (PVMS) values of the separable implant under lateral load was found to be about twice as low as that of the conventional implant. In this study, we suggest that the separable implant has an equivalent biomechanical stability compared to the conventional implant, is easy to retrieve in the case of peri-implantitis, and has an excellent initial stability after the surgery when used in stage 2. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Bone-Healing Pattern on the Surface of Titanium Implants at Cortical and Marrow Compartments in Two Topographic Sites: an Experimental Study in Rabbits
Materials 2019, 12(1), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12010085 - 27 Dec 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
This study evaluates the bone-healing patterns on the surface of titanium implants at the cortical and marrow compartments of bicortically-installed implants in the diaphysis and metaphysis of rabbit tibiae. In 27 New Zealand rabbits, two implants, one for each macro-design and with equal [...] Read more.
This study evaluates the bone-healing patterns on the surface of titanium implants at the cortical and marrow compartments of bicortically-installed implants in the diaphysis and metaphysis of rabbit tibiae. In 27 New Zealand rabbits, two implants, one for each macro-design and with equal resorbable blasted media (RBM) implant surfaces, were randomly implanted in the diaphysis or metaphysis of each tibia. The flaps were sutured to allow submerged healing. The animals were sacrificed after two, four, or eight weeks, with nine weeks used for the period of healing. Ground sections were prepared and analyzed. No statistically significant differences were found between the two groups for newly formed bone in contact with the implant surface after two, four, and eight weeks of healing. Bone apposition in the marrow compartment was slightly higher in the diaphysis compared to metaphysis regions across healing stages. Despite the limitations of the present study, it can be concluded that new bone apposition was better than average in the cortical compartment as compared to the marrow compartments. Bone morphometry and density may affect bone apposition onto the implant surface. The apposition rates were slightly better at both the cortical and marrow compartments in diaphysis as compared to metaphysis sites. The new bone formation at the marrow compartment showed slightly better increasing values at diaphysis compared to metaphysis implantation sites. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of Trauma Intensity during Surgical Bone Procedures Using NF-κB Expression Levels as a Stress Sensor: An Experimental Study in a Wistar Rat Model
Materials 2018, 11(12), 2532; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11122532 - 12 Dec 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
Aim and objectives: It is well known that the transcription factor NF-κB regulates multiple aspects of innate and adaptive immune functions and functions as a pivotal mediator of inflammatory responses. In the present study, we evaluated the trauma generated (inflammatory reaction) after [...] Read more.
Aim and objectives: It is well known that the transcription factor NF-κB regulates multiple aspects of innate and adaptive immune functions and functions as a pivotal mediator of inflammatory responses. In the present study, we evaluated the trauma generated (inflammatory reaction) after osteotomy bone surgical procedures and placement of implants in the femoral cortical bone of Wistar rats. Surgical stress was evaluated measuring the release and activation of the NF-κB factor. Materials and Methods: Rats were divided into four groups (n = 10) and submitted to different surgical treatments: Control Group (G1 group), only bone perforation was performed without irrigation; Implant Group (G2 group), a titanium implant was inserted after bone perforation without irrigation; Irrigated Group (G3 group) perforations were performed with intense irrigation; and Vitaminic Compound Group (G4 group) surgical perforation was performed without irrigation and a vitaminic compound containing the principal ions present in the natural bone structure was used to fill the bone defect. All animals were euthanized six hours after the surgical procedure and NF-κB levels were determined through immunohistochemical stain followed by direct counting of labeled and unlabeled osteocytes. Results: Among different treated groups, the overall mean of the NF-κB positive cell count in all positions were higher for G1 group (33.4 ± 2.45 cells). NF-κB values were lower in the G2 group (28.9 ± 2.70 cells), whereas in the G3 group (24.3 ± 2.72 cells) as well as in G4 group still lesser NF-κB positive cells were counted (26.5 ± 2.60 cells). Conclusions: The results here presented suggest that maneuvers performed during osteotomy procedures can significantly affect inflammation levels. The NF-κB activation during the surgical procedures can be minimized and/or controlled thought the adequate irrigation or application of adequate substances. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Ultrasonic vs Drill Implant Site Preparation: Post-Operative Pain Measurement Through VAS, Swelling and Crestal Bone Remodeling: A Randomized Clinical Study
Materials 2018, 11(12), 2516; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11122516 - 11 Dec 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
Background: Piezosurgery is a surgical procedure that is able to perform osteotomies by a micrometric and selective cut of the bone tissue. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate two different techniques; an ultrasonic device, and a drill approach for implant [...] Read more.
Background: Piezosurgery is a surgical procedure that is able to perform osteotomies by a micrometric and selective cut of the bone tissue. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate two different techniques; an ultrasonic device, and a drill approach for implant site preparation. Methods: A total of fifty patients were recruited for the randomized clinical trial to receive dental implants for fixed prosthetic restoration in the posterior mandible and were allotted to two groups. In Group A the implant site was prepared following a drilling technique, while in Group B the implant site was prepared using an ultrasonic device; moreover, the operative duration was recorded. Postoperative pain and swelling were evaluated at 1, 2, 4, and 6 days. The crestal bone resorption was measured at 3 months from implant placement by a three-dimensional tomography evaluation. Results: The findings suggest that osteotomies performed by an ultrasonic device cause less pain and swelling. On the other hand, the piezoelectric preparation was characterized by a significative increase in the operative time. No statistical differences in crestal bone resorption were evident in the two different approaches. Conclusions: According to the outcome of the study, ultrasonic implant bed preparation can be used with success in implantology and could be considered a suitable alternative to traditional drilling techniques for dental fixture placement. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Crimping and Expanding Performance of Self-Expanding Polymeric Bioresorbable Stents: Experimental and Computational Investigation
Materials 2018, 11(11), 2184; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11112184 - 04 Nov 2018
Abstract
Polymeric bioresorbable stents (PBRSs) are considered the most promising devices to treat cardiovascular diseases. However, the mechanical weakness still hampers their application. In general, PBRSs are crimped into small sheathes and re-expanded to support narrowed vessels during angioplasty. Accordingly, one of the most [...] Read more.
Polymeric bioresorbable stents (PBRSs) are considered the most promising devices to treat cardiovascular diseases. However, the mechanical weakness still hampers their application. In general, PBRSs are crimped into small sheathes and re-expanded to support narrowed vessels during angioplasty. Accordingly, one of the most significant requirements of PBRSs is to maintain mechanical efficacy after implantation. Although a little research has focused on commercial balloon-expanding PBRSs, a near-total lack has appeared on self-expanding PBRSs and their deformation mechanisms. In this work, self-expanding, composite polymeric bioresorbable stents (cPBRSs) incorporating poly(p-dioxanone) (PPDO) and polycaprolactone (PCL) yarns were produced and evaluated for their in vitro crimping and expanding potential. Furthermore, the polymer time-reliable viscoelastic effects of the structural and mechanical behavior of the cPBRSs were analyzed using computational simulations. Our results showed that the crimping process inevitably decreased the mechanical resistance of the cPBRSs, but that this could be offset by balloon dilatation. Moreover, deformation mechanisms at the yarn level were discussed, and yarns bonded in the crossings showed more viscous behavior; this property might help cPBRSs to maintain their structural integrity during implantation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Sintering Temperature-Dependence on Radiopacity of Bi(2−x) ZrxO(3+x/2) Powders Prepared by Sol-Gel Process
Materials 2018, 11(9), 1685; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11091685 - 11 Sep 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
Bismuth oxide (Bi2O3) is an effective additive used to enhance radiography resolution for dental materials. However, there are potential concerns regarding its biocompatibility and connection to tissue discoloration. In the present study, we modified the radiopacity properties of Bi [...] Read more.
Bismuth oxide (Bi2O3) is an effective additive used to enhance radiography resolution for dental materials. However, there are potential concerns regarding its biocompatibility and connection to tissue discoloration. In the present study, we modified the radiopacity properties of Bi2O3 with zirconium oxide (ZrO2) using a sol-gel process and investigated the composition, as well as the effects of heat treatment temperature using Thermogravimetry analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The harvested Bi2−xZrxO3+x/2 particles showed that the dominant phase transferred from α-Bi2O3 to β-Bi7.38Zr0.62O12.31 after a heat treatment of over 750 °C for 2 h. As the x values of Bi2−xZrxO3+x/2 increased from 0.2 to 1.0, more zirconium oxide precipitated onto the particle surface, thus enhancing the surface roughness of particles. For sol-gel Bi1.8Zr0.2O3.1 powders (x = 0.2), the radiopacity values became 4.90 ± 0.23 and 5.83 ± 0.22 mmAl after a heat treatment of 500 °C and 750 °C, respectively. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Evaluation of the Surrounding Ring of Two Different Extra-Short Implant Designs in Crestal Bone Maintanence: A Histologic Study in Dogs
Materials 2018, 11(9), 1630; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11091630 - 06 Sep 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
The aim of this study was to compare the implant stability and bone resorption and formation of two different extra-short implant designs with different diameter rings placed in a dog´s maxilla. Thirty-six extra-short, 5 mm diameter × 4 mm length (Short DM® [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to compare the implant stability and bone resorption and formation of two different extra-short implant designs with different diameter rings placed in a dog´s maxilla. Thirty-six extra-short, 5 mm diameter × 4 mm length (Short DM®, Bioner Sistemas Implantológicos, Barcelona, Spain), delayed implants were placed in each hemimaxilla of six dogs at the bone crest level. Eighteen implants of each design (wide and narrow ring) were installed. After 8 and 12 weeks of healing, histomorphometric analyses of the specimens were carried out to measure the crestal bone level values and the tissue thickness around the wide and narrow ring implant designs. In the microscopic analysis, less buccal bone resorption was observed in the narrow ring implants with a statistical significance (p < 0.001). For the peri-implant tissue thickness, the distance from the implant shoulder to the external portion of the epithelium was significantly higher for the implants installed with a wide ring with statistical significance (p < 0.001). Our findings suggest that the amount of peri-implant tissues (crestal bone loss) after remodeling over a period of 12 weeks was smaller in the narrow ring extra-short implant installed in the healed maxilla, compared with the wide ring extra-short implants. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
FEM Investigation of the Stress Distribution over Mandibular Bone Due to Screwed Overdenture Positioned on Dental Implants
Materials 2018, 11(9), 1512; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11091512 - 23 Aug 2018
Cited by 14
Abstract
The objective of the present investigation was to evaluate how dental implant positioning can influence the masticatory stress distribution over screwed mandibular prosthodontics restoration and over the surrounding bone tissue. Moreover, the dental implant components and overdenture bar strengths under masticatory cycles have [...] Read more.
The objective of the present investigation was to evaluate how dental implant positioning can influence the masticatory stress distribution over screwed mandibular prosthodontics restoration and over the surrounding bone tissue. Moreover, the dental implant components and overdenture bar strengths under masticatory cycles have been investigated in order to evaluate possible screw and prosthesis breakage. A “virtual jaw” model and 3D dental implant were reproduced to realise finite element analysis in order to underline the parameters and the mechanical characteristics of the bone and of the dental implants connected to the overdenture bar. The distribution of a nonspecific chewing phase, analysing the overall load on the fixtures of the lower jaw, was performed. The study investigating frontal and horizontal planes and vertical directions of occlusal forces showed how position and perspective of fixtures strongly influenced the stress distribution and the consequent jawbone tissue remodelling. Prostheses elements such as cantilever, passing screws, and dental implants are strictly related to the correct selection of dental implant position. This study suggested a virtual method to guide the surgeon in the choice of implant number, position, diameter, and length, and cantilever length and shape, and to evaluate the prospective stress distribution of chewing strengths for a correct prosthesis rehabilitation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Silver-Based Chemical Device as an Adjunct of Domestic Oral Hygiene: A Study on Periodontal Patients
Materials 2018, 11(8), 1483; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11081483 - 20 Aug 2018
Cited by 56
Abstract
The use of chemical devices for periodontitis treatment has led to new strategies aiming primarily to control infections. Over the last few years, new chemical devices have been subjected to many scientific and medical studies. The purpose of the present study was to [...] Read more.
The use of chemical devices for periodontitis treatment has led to new strategies aiming primarily to control infections. Over the last few years, new chemical devices have been subjected to many scientific and medical studies. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of a new silver based chemical devices gel named “Hydrosilver Plus Gel”, abbreviated here as Hydrosilver, on the pathogenic microorganisms, using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) for microbiological analysis. Materials and methods: Ten patients with a diagnosis of chronic periodontitis in the age group >25 years were selected. None of these patients had received any surgical or non-surgical periodontal therapy, and demonstrated radiographic evidence of moderate bone loss. After scaling and root planning, patients received Hydrosilver to be used at home. Four non-adjacent sites in separate quadrants were selected in each patient for monitoring, based on criteria that the sites localise chronic periodontitis. Microbial analysis was analysed at baseline and at Day 15. SPSS program was used for statistical purposes and a paired samples correlation was performed at the end of the observation period. Results: Mean amounts of bacterial loading before and after Hydrosilver treatment reduced statistically significantly (p = 0.002). Conclusions: The present study demonstrated that Hydrosilver has a good impact on oral biofilm. Additional studies are needed to detect the efficacy of this chemical device. Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Sinus Membrane Elevation with Heterologous Cortical Lamina: A Randomized Study of a New Surgical Technique for Maxillary Sinus Floor Augmentation without Bone Graft
Materials 2018, 11(8), 1457; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11081457 - 17 Aug 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
Background: The aim of this randomized controlled clinical trial was to compare the efficacy of two different techniques for maxillary sinus augmentation using a lateral window approach: Heterologous cortical lamina without any grafting material versus 100% collagenated granular collagen porcine bone. Methods: Twenty-three [...] Read more.
Background: The aim of this randomized controlled clinical trial was to compare the efficacy of two different techniques for maxillary sinus augmentation using a lateral window approach: Heterologous cortical lamina without any grafting material versus 100% collagenated granular collagen porcine bone. Methods: Twenty-three healthy patients with not relevant past medical history (14 women and 9 men, non-smokers, mean age 52 years, range 48–65 years) were included. In Group I, the sinus was filled with collagen porcine bone (Geno-os, OsteoBiol, Turin, Italy) and a collagen membrane (Evolution, OsteoBiol, Turin, Italy) was used to close the lateral window of the sinus. In Group II, the sinus was treated with heterologous cortical lamina only (Lamina, OsteoBiol, Turin, Italy). Results: There was a statistically significant difference in the surgical time required to complete the augmentation procedures: 18.3 ± 2.1 min for lamina treated sites versus 12.5 ± 3.1 min for porcine bone treated sites. In Group I, the mean volume of the graft was 3101 ± 321 mm3 in the immediate postoperative examination (5–7 days), while after a six-month healing period it was 2716.7 ± 432 mm3. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that the use of heterologous cortical lamina is a valid technique for the mechanical support of sinus membranes resulting in only bone tissue formation and not mixed with the graft. The graft material was biocompatible and not completely resorbed after six months, although the remains were integrated into the bone. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Development of a Photo-Crosslinking, Biodegradable GelMA/PEGDA Hydrogel for Guided Bone Regeneration Materials
Materials 2018, 11(8), 1345; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11081345 - 03 Aug 2018
Cited by 11
Abstract
Gelatin-based hydrogel, which mimics the natural dermal extracellular matrix, is a promising tissue engineering material. However, insufficient and uncontrollable mechanical and degradation properties remain the major obstacles for its application in medical bone regeneration material. Herein, we develop a facile but efficient strategy [...] Read more.
Gelatin-based hydrogel, which mimics the natural dermal extracellular matrix, is a promising tissue engineering material. However, insufficient and uncontrollable mechanical and degradation properties remain the major obstacles for its application in medical bone regeneration material. Herein, we develop a facile but efficient strategy for a novel hydrogel as guided bone regeneration (GBR) material. In this study, methacrylic anhydride (MA) has been used to modify gelatin to obtain photo-crosslinkable methacrylated gelatin (GelMA). Moreover, the GelMA/PEGDA hydrogel was prepared by photo-crosslinking GelMA and PEGDA with photoinitiator I2959 under UV treatment. Compared with the GelMA hydrogel, the GelMA/PEGDA hydrogel exhibits several times stronger mechanical properties than pure GelMA hydrogel. The GelMA/PEGDA hydrogel shows a suitable degradation rate of more than 4 weeks, which is beneficial to implant in body. In vitro cell culture showed that osteoblast can adhere and proliferate on the surface of the hydrogel, indicating that the GelMA/PEGDA hydrogel had good cell viability and biocompatibility. Furthermore, by changing the quantities of GelMA, I2959, and PEGDA, the gelation time can be controlled easily to meet the requirement of its applications. In short, this study demonstrated that PEGDA enhanced the performance and extended the applications of GelMA hydrogels, turning the GelMA/PEGDA hydrogel into an excellent GBR material. Full article
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