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Chitosan/Essential Oils Formulations for Potential Use as Wound Dressing: Physical and Antimicrobial Properties

1
Materials Engineering Department, Federal University of Paraíba, João Pessoa PB 58051-900, Brazil
2
Materials Engineering Department, Federal University of Campina Grande, Campina Grande PB 58429-140, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2019, 12(14), 2223; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12142223
Received: 26 April 2019 / Revised: 17 May 2019 / Accepted: 21 May 2019 / Published: 10 July 2019
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Abstract

Film-forming emulsions and films, prepared by incorporating different concentrations of clove essential oil (CEO) and melaleuca essential oil (MEO) into chitosan (CS) were obtained and their properties were evaluated. Film-forming emulsions were characterized in terms of qualitative assessment, hydrogen potential and in vitro antibacterial activity, that was carried by the agar diffusion method, and the growth inhibition effects were tested on the Gram-positive microorganism of Staphylococcus aureus, Gram-negative microorganisms of Escherichia coli, and against isolated fungi such as Candida albicans. In order to study the impact of the incorporation of CEO and MEO into the CS matrix, the appearance and thickness of the films were evaluated. Furthermore, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), contact angle measurements, a swelling test, scanning electron microscopy and a tensile test were carried out. Results showed that the film-forming emulsions had translucent aspect with cloudy milky appearance and showed antimicrobial properties. The CEO had the highest inhibition against the three strains studied. As regards the films’ properties, the coloration of the films was affected by the type and concentration of bioactive used. The chitosan/CEO films showed an intense yellowish coloration while the chitosan/MEO films presented a slightly yellowish coloration, but in general, all chitosan/EOs films presented good transparency in visible light besides flexibility, mechanical resistance when touched, smaller thicknesses than the dermis and higher wettability than chitosan films, in both distilled water and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). The interactions between the chitosan and EOs were confirmed by. The chitosan/EOs films presented morphologies with rough appearance and with EOs droplets in varying shapes and sizes, well distributed along the surface of the films, and the tensile properties were compatible to be applied as wound dressings. These results revealed that the CEO and MEO have a good potential to be incorporated into chitosan to make films for wound-healing applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: chitosan; clove; melaleuca; films; antimicrobial activity; physical properties chitosan; clove; melaleuca; films; antimicrobial activity; physical properties
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Pereira dos Santos, E.; Nicácio, P.H.M.; Coêlho Barbosa, F.; Nunes da Silva, H.; Andrade, A.L.S.; Lia Fook, M.V.; de Lima Silva, S.M.; Farias Leite, I. Chitosan/Essential Oils Formulations for Potential Use as Wound Dressing: Physical and Antimicrobial Properties. Materials 2019, 12, 2223.

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