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Open AccessArticle

Investigation of Electroplastic Effect on Four Grades of Duplex Stainless Steels

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Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Padua Via Marzolo 9, 35131 Padova PD, Italy
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Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Padua Via Venezia 1, 35131 Padova PD, Italy
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Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Padua Via Gradenigo 6/A, 35131 Padova PD, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2019, 12(12), 1911; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12121911
Received: 16 May 2019 / Revised: 10 June 2019 / Accepted: 11 June 2019 / Published: 13 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Duplex Stainless Steels)
Since the late 1950s, an effect of electrical current in addition to joule heating on the deformation of metals called the Electroplastic Effect (EPE) has been known. It is used nowadays in the so-called Electrically Assisted Forming (EAF) processes, but the understanding of the phenomenon is not very clear yet. It has been found that EPE increases the formability of high stacking fault energy (SFE) materials, while low SFE materials reach fracture prematurely. Since Duplex Stainless Steels (DSSs) possess a microstructure consisting of two phases with very different SFE (low SFE austenite and high SFE ferrite) and they are widely used in industry, we investigated EPE on those alloys. Tensile tests at 5 A/mm2, 10 A/mm2 and 15 A/mm2 current densities along with thermal counterparts were conducted on UNS S32101, UNS S32205, UNS S32304 and UNS S32750. The DSS grades were characterized by means of optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction and their mechanical properties (ultimate tensile strength, total elongation, uniform elongation and yield stress). An increase in uniform elongation for the electrical tests compared to the thermal counterparts as well as an increase in total elongation was found. No differences were observed on the yield stress and on the ultimate tensile strength. Un uneven distribution of the current because of the different resistivity and work hardening of the two phases has been hypothesized as the explanation for the positive effect of EPE. View Full-Text
Keywords: duplex stainless steels; electroplastic effect; tensile test; stacking fault energy; electrically assisted forming; electron stagnation theory; current distribution; mechanical properties; uniform elongation duplex stainless steels; electroplastic effect; tensile test; stacking fault energy; electrically assisted forming; electron stagnation theory; current distribution; mechanical properties; uniform elongation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gennari, C.; Pezzato, L.; Simonetto, E.; Gobbo, R.; Forzan, M.; Calliari, I. Investigation of Electroplastic Effect on Four Grades of Duplex Stainless Steels. Materials 2019, 12, 1911.

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