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Bonding Behavior of Repair Material Using Fly-Ash/Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag-Based Geopolymer

Department of Civil Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Science and Technology, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
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Materials 2019, 12(10), 1697; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12101697
Received: 29 April 2019 / Revised: 22 May 2019 / Accepted: 22 May 2019 / Published: 24 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Concrete and Construction Materials)
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Abstract

Fly ash/ground-granulated blast-furnace slag geopolymer (FGG) contains reaction products with a high volume of Ca, hydrated CaSiO3, and hydrated AlCaSiO3. These compounds enable the filling of large air voids in a structure, thus increasing compactness. Therefore, FGG is a more effective repair material to stabilize structures and can function as a sealing and insulating layer. This study used FGG as the repair material for concrete with ground-granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBFS) as the main cement material. The bond strength of the repair was discussed from different aspects, including for fly-ash substitution rates of 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30% and for liquid–solid ratios of 0.4 and 0.5. The slant shear test, and the split tensile test were employed in this analysis. Moreover, acoustic emission (AE) and scanning electron microscopy were used to confirm the damage modes and microstructural characteristics of these repairs. The results revealed that when the liquid–solid ratio increased from 0.4 to 0.5, the slant shear strength of the repaired material decreased from 36.9 MPa to 33.8 MPa, and the split tensile strength decreased from 1.97 MPa to 1.87 MPa. The slant shear test and split tensile test demonstrated that the repair material exhibited the highest effectiveness when the fly-ash substitution was 10%, and revealed that the repair angle directly affected the damage modes. The AE technique revealed that the damage behavior pattern of the FGG repair material was similar to that of Portland concrete. The microstructural analysis revealed that the FGG–concrete interphase contained mostly hydration products, and based on energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), the compactness in the interphase and bond strength increased after the polymerization between the geopolymer and concrete. This indicated that the geopolymer damage mode was highly related to the level of polymerization. View Full-Text
Keywords: fly ash/ground-granulated blast-furnace slag geopolymer; repair material; bond strength; repair mechanism fly ash/ground-granulated blast-furnace slag geopolymer; repair material; bond strength; repair mechanism
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Kuo, W.-T.; Liu, M.-Y.; Juang, C.-U. Bonding Behavior of Repair Material Using Fly-Ash/Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag-Based Geopolymer. Materials 2019, 12, 1697.

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