This experimental study aimed to develop a fiber-reinforced lightweight mineral wool-based alkali activated mortar. The lightweight mineral wool-based alkali activated mortars were produced using premade foam and reinforced by polypropylene (PP) fibers. They were assessed in terms of fresh and hardened-state properties. Fresh-state properties were investigated by mini-slump tests. Hardened-state characteristics were assessed by ultrasonic pulse velocity, dry density, compressive and flexural strengths, drying shrinkage, efflorescence, water absorption, and permeable porosity. For the first time, the resistance of the synthesized lightweight mineral wool-based alkali activated mortars against harsh conditions (carbonation, freeze and thaw, and high temperature) were evaluated. The porous structures of the developed lightweight alkali activated mortars were also analyzed using an X-ray micro-computed tomography (CT) technique. Lightweight mix compositions with densities in a range of 770–1510 kg/m3
, compressive strengths of 1–9 MPa, and flexural strengths of 2.6–8 MPa were developed. Increases in both density and strength after carbonation were also recorded, while a decrease of strength was noticed after exposure to freeze/thaw and high temperatures of up to 500 °C.
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