Scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) is a chemical microscopy technique with high spatial resolution for imaging sample topography and mapping specific chemical species in liquid environments. With the development of smaller, more sensitive ultramicroelectrodes (UMEs) and more precise computer-controlled measurements, SECM has been widely used to study biological systems over the past three decades. Recent methodological breakthroughs have popularized SECM as a tool for investigating molecular-level chemical reactions. The most common applications include monitoring and analyzing the biological processes associated with enzymatic activity and DNA, and the physiological activity of living cells and other microorganisms. The present article first introduces the basic principles of SECM, followed by an updated review of the applications of SECM in biological studies on enzymes, DNA, proteins, and living cells. Particularly, the potential of SECM for investigating bacterial and biofilm activities is discussed.
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