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High Capacity and High Efficiency Maple Tree-Biomass-Derived Hard Carbon as an Anode Material for Sodium-Ion Batteries

Center of Excellence in Transportation Electrification and Energy Storage, Hydro-Québec, 1806 Boulevard Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, QC J3X1S1, Canada
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Materials 2018, 11(8), 1294; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11081294
Received: 28 June 2018 / Revised: 23 July 2018 / Accepted: 24 July 2018 / Published: 26 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrode Materials for High Performance Sodium-ion Batteries)
Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) are in the spotlight because of their potential use in large-scale energy storage devices due to the abundance and low cost of sodium-based materials. There are many SIB cathode materials under investigation but only a few candidate materials such as carbon, oxides and alloys were proposed as anodes. Among these anode materials, hard carbon shows promising performances with low operating potential and relatively high specific capacity. Unfortunately, its low initial coulombic efficiency and high cost limit its commercial applications. In this study, low-cost maple tree-biomass-derived hard carbon is tested as the anode for sodium-ion batteries. The capacity of hard carbon prepared at 1400 °C (HC-1400) reaches 337 mAh/g at 0.1 C. The initial coulombic efficiency is up to 88.03% in Sodium trifluoromethanesulfonimide (NaTFSI)/Ethylene carbonate (EC): Diethyl carbonate (DEC) electrolyte. The capacity was maintained at 92.3% after 100 cycles at 0.5 C rates. The in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed that no peak shift occurred during charge/discharge, supporting a finding of no sodium ion intercalates in the nano-graphite layer. Its low cost, high capacity and high coulombic efficiency indicate that hard carbon is a promising anode material for sodium-ion batteries. View Full-Text
Keywords: hard carbon; sodium ion batteries; high capacity; high coulombic efficiency; NaTFSI hard carbon; sodium ion batteries; high capacity; high coulombic efficiency; NaTFSI
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Wang, Y.; Feng, Z.; Zhu, W.; Gariépy, V.; Gagnon, C.; Provencher, M.; Laul, D.; Veillette, R.; Trudeau, M.L.; Guerfi, A.; Zaghib, K. High Capacity and High Efficiency Maple Tree-Biomass-Derived Hard Carbon as an Anode Material for Sodium-Ion Batteries. Materials 2018, 11, 1294.

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