Due to the high surface: volume ratio and the extraordinary properties arising from the nanoscale (optical, electric, magnetic, etc.), nanoparticles (NPs) are excellent candidates for multiple applications. In this context, nanoscience is opening a wide range of modern technologies in biological and biomedical fields, among others. However, one of the main drawbacks that still delays its fast evolution and effectiveness is related to the behavior of nanomaterials in the presence of biological fluids. Unfortunately, biological fluids are characterized by high ionic strengths which usually induce NP aggregation. Besides this problem, the high content in biomacromolecules—such as lipids, sugars, nucleic acids and, especially, proteins—also affects NP stability and its viability for some applications due to, for example, the formation of the protein corona around the NPs. Here, we will review the most common strategies to achieve stable NPs dispersions in high ionic strength fluids and, also, antifouling strategies to avoid the protein adsorption.
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