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Materials 2018, 11(7), 1123;

Electrochemically Enhanced Drug Delivery Using Polypyrrole Films

Department of Chemistry, Lancaster University, Lancaster, LA1 4YB, UK
Department of Chemistry, Government Post Graduate College No. 1, Abbottabad 22010, Pakistan
Department of Chemistry, Hazara University, Mansehra 21130, Pakistan
Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo 11566, Egypt
Bioinformatics Program, Faculty of Computer and Information Sciences, Ain Shams University, Cairo 11566, Egypt
Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy and Biotechnology, German University in Cairo, Cairo 11835, Egypt
Materials Science Institute, Lancaster University, Lancaster, LA1 4YB, UK
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 June 2018 / Revised: 17 June 2018 / Accepted: 26 June 2018 / Published: 1 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Conductive Polymers: Materials and Applications)
Full-Text   |   PDF [6449 KB, uploaded 1 July 2018]   |  


The delivery of drugs in a controllable fashion is a topic of intense research activity in both academia and industry because of its impact in healthcare. Implantable electronic interfaces for the body have great potential for positive economic, health, and societal impacts; however, the implantation of such interfaces results in inflammatory responses due to a mechanical mismatch between the inorganic substrate and soft tissue, and also results in the potential for microbial infection during complex surgical procedures. Here, we report the use of conducting polypyrrole (PPY)-based coatings loaded with clinically relevant drugs (either an anti-inflammatory, dexamethasone phosphate (DMP), or an antibiotic, meropenem (MER)). The films were characterized and were shown to enhance the delivery of the drugs upon the application of an electrochemical stimulus in vitro, by circa (ca.) 10–30% relative to the passive release from non-stimulated samples. Interestingly, the loading and release of the drugs was correlated with the physical descriptors of the drugs. In the long term, such materials have the potential for application to the surfaces of medical devices to diminish adverse reactions to their implantation in vivo. View Full-Text
Keywords: conducting polymers; electroactive polymers; medical devices; drug delivery; anti-inflammatory; antibiotic conducting polymers; electroactive polymers; medical devices; drug delivery; anti-inflammatory; antibiotic

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Shah, S.A.A.; Firlak, M.; Berrow, S.R.; Halcovitch, N.R.; Baldock, S.J.; Yousafzai, B.M.; Hathout, R.M.; Hardy, J.G. Electrochemically Enhanced Drug Delivery Using Polypyrrole Films. Materials 2018, 11, 1123.

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