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Open AccessArticle

Physicochemical and Microbiological Assessment of an Experimental Composite Doped with Triclosan-Loaded Halloysite Nanotubes

Post-Graduation Program in Dentistry, Federal University of Ceará, Rua Monsenhor Furtado S/N, Rodolfo Teófilo, Fortaleza 60430-355, Ceará, Brazil
Department of Organic and Inorganic Chemistry, Federal University of Ceará, Fortaleza 60440-900, Ceará, Brazil
School of Dentistry, Paulista University—UNIP, R. Dr. Bacelar 1212, Vila Clementino, São Paulo 04026-002, SP, Brazil
Laboratório de Materiais Dentários, Faculdade de Odontologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Rua Ramiro Barcelos, 2492, Rio Branco, Porto Alegre 90035-003, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
Departamento de Odontología, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad CEU-Cardenal Herrera, C/Del Pozos/n, Alfara del Patriarca, 46115 Valencia, Spain
Tissue Engineering and Biophotonics Research Division King’s College London Dental Institute (KCLDI), London SE1 9RT, UK
Department of Restorative Dentistry, School of Dentistry, of Ceará, Fortaleza 60430-355, Ceará, Brazil
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2018, 11(7), 1080;
Received: 6 May 2018 / Revised: 10 June 2018 / Accepted: 22 June 2018 / Published: 25 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive and Therapeutic Dental Materials)
This study is aimed at evaluating the effects of triclosan-encapsulated halloysite nanotubes (HNT/TCN) on the physicochemical and microbiological properties of an experimental dental composite. A resin composite doped with HNT/TCN (8% w/w), a control resin composite without nanotubes (HNT/TCN-0%) and a commercial nanofilled resin (CN) were assessed for degree of conversion (DC), flexural strength (FS), flexural modulus (FM), polymerization stress (PS), dynamic thermomechanical (DMA) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The antibacterial properties (M) were also evaluated using a 5-day biofilm assay (CFU/mL). Data was submitted to one-way ANOVA and Tukey tests. There was no significant statistical difference in DC, FM and RU between the tested composites (p > 0.05). The FS and CN values attained with the HNT/TCN composite were higher (p < 0.05) than those obtained with the HNT/TCN-0%. The DMA analysis showed significant differences in the TAN δ (p = 0.006) and Tg (p = 0) between the groups. TGA curves showed significant differences between the groups in terms of degradation (p = 0.046) and weight loss (p = 0.317). The addition of HNT/TCN induced higher PS, although no significant antimicrobial effect was observed (p = 0.977) between the groups for CFUs and (p = 0.557) dry weight. The incorporation of HNT/TCN showed improvements in physicochemical and mechanical properties of resin composites. Such material may represent an alternative choice for therapeutic restorative treatments, although no significance was found in terms of antibacterial properties. However, it is possible that current antibacterial tests, as the one used in this laboratory study, may not be totally appropriate for the evaluation of resin composites, unless accompanied with aging protocols (e.g., thermocycling and load cycling) that allow the release of therapeutic agents incorporated in such materials. View Full-Text
Keywords: mechanical properties; nanotubes; resin composite; Streptococcus mutans; triclosan mechanical properties; nanotubes; resin composite; Streptococcus mutans; triclosan
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cunha, D.A.; Rodrigues, N.S.; Souza, L.C.; Lomonaco, D.; Rodrigues, F.P.; Degrazia, F.W.; Collares, F.M.; Sauro, S.; Saboia, V.P.A. Physicochemical and Microbiological Assessment of an Experimental Composite Doped with Triclosan-Loaded Halloysite Nanotubes. Materials 2018, 11, 1080.

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