In order to provide heat and electricity under emergency conditions in off-grid areas, a stove-powered thermoelectric generator (STEG) was designed and optimized. No battery was incorporated, ensuring it would work anytime, anywhere, as long as combustible materials were provided. The startup performance, power load feature and thermoelectric (TE) efficiency were investigated in detail. Furthermore, the heat-conducting plate thickness, cooling fan selection, heat sink dimension and TE module configuration were optimized. The heat flow method was employed to determine the TE efficiency, which was compared to the predicted data. Results showed that the STEG can supply clean-and-warm air (625 W) and electricity (8.25 W at 5 V) continuously at a temperature difference of 148 °C, and the corresponding TE efficiency was measured to be 2.31%. Optimization showed that the choice of heat-conducting plate thickness, heat sink dimensions and cooling fan were inter-dependent, and the TE module configuration affected both the startup process and the power output.
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