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Materials 2018, 11(6), 936; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11060936

Environmental Screening of Electrode Materials for a Rechargeable Aluminum Battery with an AlCl3/EMIMCl Electrolyte

1
Industrial Ecology Programme and Department of Energy and Process Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Sem Sælandsvei 7, 7491 Trondheim, Norway
2
Energy Technology Group, Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, University of Southampton, University Road, Southampton SO15 1BJ, UK
3
DECHEMA-Forschungsinstitut, Theodor-Heuss-Allee 25, 60486 Frankfurt am Main, Germany
4
Torrecid SA, Partida Torreta s/n, 12110 Alcora, Spain
5
Laboratoire des Matériaux, DEHT, LITEN, CEA, Université Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble, France
6
Leitat Technological Center, Carrer de la Innovació, 2 08225 Terrassa, Spain
7
ACCUREC Recycling GmbH, Bataverstraße 21, DE-47809 Krefeld, Germany
8
CIRAIG, École Polytechnique de Montréal, dép. Génie Chimique 3333 Chemin Queen-Mary, Bureau 310 C.P. 6079 succ. Centre-ville, Montréal, QC H3C 3A7, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 May 2018 / Revised: 25 May 2018 / Accepted: 30 May 2018 / Published: 1 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Aluminium-ion Battery)
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Abstract

Recently, rechargeable aluminum batteries have received much attention due to their low cost, easy operation, and high safety. As the research into rechargeable aluminum batteries with a room-temperature ionic liquid electrolyte is relatively new, research efforts have focused on finding suitable electrode materials. An understanding of the environmental aspects of electrode materials is essential to make informed and conscious decisions in aluminum battery development. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the relative environmental performance of electrode material candidates for rechargeable aluminum batteries with an AlCl3/EMIMCl (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride) room-temperature ionic liquid electrolyte. To this end, we used a lifecycle environmental screening framework to evaluate 12 candidate electrode materials. We found that all of the studied materials are associated with one or more drawbacks and therefore do not represent a “silver bullet” for the aluminum battery. Even so, some materials appeared more promising than others did. We also found that aluminum battery technology is likely to face some of the same environmental challenges as Li-ion technology but also offers an opportunity to avoid others. The insights provided here can aid aluminum battery development in an environmentally sustainable direction. View Full-Text
Keywords: Al-ion battery; rechargeable aluminum battery; electrode materials; anode material; cathode material; electrical energy storage; climate mitigation; environmental screening; sustainable development Al-ion battery; rechargeable aluminum battery; electrode materials; anode material; cathode material; electrical energy storage; climate mitigation; environmental screening; sustainable development
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Ellingsen, L. .-W.; Holland, A.; Drillet, J.-F.; Peters, W.; Eckert, M.; Concepcion, C.; Ruiz, O.; Colin, J.-F.; Knipping, E.; Pan, Q.; Wills, R.G.A.; Majeau-Bettez, G. Environmental Screening of Electrode Materials for a Rechargeable Aluminum Battery with an AlCl3/EMIMCl Electrolyte. Materials 2018, 11, 936.

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