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Open AccessArticle

Coextrusion-Based 3D Plotting of Ceramic Pastes for Porous Calcium Phosphate Scaffolds Comprised of Hollow Filaments

1
School of Biomedical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Korea
2
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2018, 11(6), 911; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11060911
Received: 6 May 2018 / Revised: 25 May 2018 / Accepted: 27 May 2018 / Published: 29 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Biomaterials)
This paper demonstrates the utility of coextrusion-based 3D plotting of ceramic pastes (CoEx-3DP) as a new type of additive manufacturing (AM) technique, which can produce porous calcium phosphate (CaP) ceramic scaffolds comprised of hollow CaP filaments. In this technique, green filaments with a controlled core/shell structure can be produced by coextruding an initial feedrod, comprised of the carbon black (CB) core and CaP shell, through a fine nozzle in an acetone bath and then deposited in a controlled manner according to predetermined paths. In addition, channels in CaP filaments can be created through the removal of the CB cores during heat-treatment. Produced CaP scaffolds had two different types of pores with well-defined geometries: three-dimensionally interconnected pores (~360 × 230 μm2 in sizes) and channels (>100 μm in diameter) in hollow CaP filaments. The porous scaffolds showed high compressive strengths of ~12.3 ± 2.2 MPa at a high porosity of ~73 vol % when compressed parallel to the direction of the hollow CaP filaments. In addition, the mechanical properties of porous CaP scaffolds could be tailored by adjusting their porosity, for example, compressive strengths of 4.8 ± 1.1 MPa at a porosity of ~82 vol %. The porous CaP scaffold showed good biocompatibility, which was assessed by in vitro cell tests, where several the cells adhered to and spread actively with the outer and inner surfaces of the hollow CaP filaments. View Full-Text
Keywords: calcium phosphate; additive manufacturing; porous structure; mechanical properties; biocompatibility calcium phosphate; additive manufacturing; porous structure; mechanical properties; biocompatibility
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MDPI and ACS Style

Jo, I.-H.; Koh, Y.-H.; Kim, H.-E. Coextrusion-Based 3D Plotting of Ceramic Pastes for Porous Calcium Phosphate Scaffolds Comprised of Hollow Filaments. Materials 2018, 11, 911.

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