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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Three Dimensional Methodology to Characterize Large Dendritic Equiaxed Grains in Industrial Steel Ingots

Laboratory of Excellence on Design of Alloy Metals for low-mAss Structures (DAMAS), Université de Lorraine, 57073 Metz, France
Department of Metallurgy & Materials Science and Engineering, Institut Jean Lamour, 2 allée André Guinier Campus Artem, 54000 Nancy, France
Ascométal CREAS, Avenue de France, BP 70045, 57301 Hagondange, France
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2018, 11(6), 1007;
Received: 25 May 2018 / Revised: 11 June 2018 / Accepted: 12 June 2018 / Published: 13 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design of Alloy Metals for Low-Mass Structures)
The primary phase grain size is a key parameter to understand the formation of the macrosegregation pattern in large steel ingots. Most of the characterization techniques use two-dimensional measurements. In this paper, a characterization method has been developed for equiaxed dendritic grains in industrial steel castings. A total of 383 contours were drawn two-dimensionally on twelve 6.6 cm2slices. A three-dimensional reconstruction method is performed to obtain 171 three-dimensional grains. Data regarding the size, shape and orientation of equiaxed grains is presented and thereby shows that equiaxed grains are centimeter-scale complex objects. They appear to be a poly-dispersed collection of non-isotropic objects possessing preferential orientations. In addition, the volumetric grain number density is 2.2×107 grains/m3, which compares to the 0.5×107 grains/m3 that can be obtained with estimation from 2D measurements. The 2.2×107 grains/m3 value is ten-times smaller than that previously used in the literature to simulate the macrosegregation profile in the same 6.2 ton ingot. View Full-Text
Keywords: industrial ingot; steel; dendritic grain size industrial ingot; steel; dendritic grain size
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gennesson, M.; Zollinger, J.; Daloz, D.; Rouat, B.; Demurger, J.; Combeau, H. Three Dimensional Methodology to Characterize Large Dendritic Equiaxed Grains in Industrial Steel Ingots. Materials 2018, 11, 1007.

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