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Nucleation and Growth of Porous MnO2 Coatings Prepared on Nickel Foam and Evaluation of Their Electrochemical Performance

School of Materials Engineering, Shanghai University of Engineering Science, Shanghai 201620, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2018, 11(5), 716;
Received: 2 April 2018 / Revised: 21 April 2018 / Accepted: 27 April 2018 / Published: 2 May 2018
Porous MnO2 was uniformly electrodeposited on nickel foam in MnSO4 solution, which was applied as the electrode of supercapacitors. The nucleation/growth mechanisms of porous MnO2 were investigated firstly. Then two kinds of electrochemical measuring technologies, corresponding to the cycle voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge-discharge, were adopted to assess the electrochemical performance of MnO2 electrodes. The results demonstrated that the deposition of MnO2 on nickel foam included four stages. Prior to the deposition, an extremely short incubation period of about 2 s was observed (the first stage). Then the exposed nickel foam was instantly covered by a large number of MnO2 crystal nuclei and crystal nuclei connected with each other in a very short time of about 3 s (the second stage). Nucleation predominated in the second stage. The sharply rise of current was caused by the increase in substrate surface area which due to nucleation of MnO2. Grain boundaries grew preferentially due to their high energy, accompanied with a honeycomb-like structure with the higher surface area was formed. However, accompanied with the electrochemical reactions gradually diffusion-controlled, the current presented the decline trend with increasing the time (the third stage). When the electrochemical reactions were completely diffusion-controlled, the porous MnO2 coating with an approximately constant surface area was formed (the fourth stage). MnO2 coatings deposited for different time (30, 60, 120, 300 s) exhibited a similar specific capacitance (CV: about 224 F/g; galvanostatic charge-discharge: about 264 F/g). Comparatively speaking, the value of MnO2 deposited for 600 s was highest (CV: 270 F/g; galvanostatic charge-discharge: 400 F/g). View Full-Text
Keywords: MnO2; coating; electrodeposition; nucleation and growth MnO2; coating; electrodeposition; nucleation and growth
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MDPI and ACS Style

Huang, W.; Li, J.; Xu, Y. Nucleation and Growth of Porous MnO2 Coatings Prepared on Nickel Foam and Evaluation of Their Electrochemical Performance. Materials 2018, 11, 716.

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