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Open AccessArticle

Effect of Reaction Temperature on Structure, Appearance and Bonding Type of Functionalized Graphene Oxide Modified P-Phenylene Diamine

by Hong-Juan Sun 1,*,†, Bo Liu 2,*,†, Tong-Jiang Peng 1 and Xiao-Long Zhao 1
1
Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Solid Waste Treatment and Resource Recycle, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010, China
2
School of National Defense Science and Technology, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Materials 2018, 11(4), 647; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11040647
Received: 23 March 2018 / Revised: 14 April 2018 / Accepted: 19 April 2018 / Published: 23 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Element-Doped Functional Carbon-based Materials)
In this study, graphene oxides with different functionalization degrees were prepared by a facile one-step hydrothermal reflux method at various reaction temperatures using graphene oxide (GO) as starting material and p-phenylenediamine (PPD) as the modifier. The effects of reaction temperature on structure, appearance and bonding type of the obtained materials were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that when the reaction temperature was 10–70 °C, the GO reacted with PPD through non-covalent ionic bonds (–COOH3+N–R) and hydrogen bonds (C–OH…H2N–X). When the reaction temperature reached 90 °C, the GO was functionalized with PPD through covalent bonds of C–N. The crystal structure of products became more ordered and regular, and the interlayer spacing (d value) and surface roughness increased as the temperature increased. Furthermore, the results suggested that PPD was grafted on the surface of GO through covalent bonding by first attacking the carboxyl groups and then the epoxy groups of GO. View Full-Text
Keywords: graphene oxide; p-phenylene diamine; functionalized graphene oxide; cross-link bond type; bonding type graphene oxide; p-phenylene diamine; functionalized graphene oxide; cross-link bond type; bonding type
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Sun, H.-J.; Liu, B.; Peng, T.-J.; Zhao, X.-L. Effect of Reaction Temperature on Structure, Appearance and Bonding Type of Functionalized Graphene Oxide Modified P-Phenylene Diamine. Materials 2018, 11, 647.

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