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Open AccessArticle

The Mechanical Properties and In Vitro Biocompatibility of PM-Fabricated Ti-28Nb-35.4Zr Alloy for Orthopedic Implant Applications

by Wei Xu 1,†, Ming Li 1,†, Cuie Wen 2, Shaomin Lv 1, Chengcheng Liu 1, Xin Lu 1,3,4,* and Xuanhui Qu 1,3,4,*
1
Institute for Advanced Materials and Technology, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China
2
School of Engineering, RMIT University, 3083 Melbourne, Australia
3
Beijing Key Laboratory for Advanced Powder Metallurgy and Particulate Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China
4
Beijing Laboratory of Metallic Materials and Processing for Modern Transportation, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Materials 2018, 11(4), 531; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11040531
Received: 12 March 2018 / Revised: 29 March 2018 / Accepted: 29 March 2018 / Published: 30 March 2018
A biocompatible Ti-28Nb-35.4Zr alloy used as bone implant was fabricated through the powder metallurgy process. The effects of mechanical milling and sintering temperatures on the microstructure and mechanical properties were investigated systematically, before in vitro biocompatibility of full dense Ti-28Nb-35.4Zr alloy was evaluated by cytotoxicity tests. The results show that the mechanical milling and sintering temperatures have significantly effects on the density and mechanical properties of the alloys. The relative density of the alloy fabricated by the atomized powders at 1500 °C is only 83 ± 1.8%, while the relative density of the alloy fabricated by the ball-milled powders can rapidly reach at 96.4 ± 1.3% at 1500 °C. When the temperature was increased to 1550 °C, the alloy fabricated by ball-milled powders achieve full density (relative density is 98.1 ± 1.2%). The PM-fabricated Ti-28Nb-35.4Zr alloy by ball-milled powders at 1550 °C can achieve a wide range of mechanical properties, with a compressive yield strength of 1058 ± 35.1 MPa, elastic modulus of 50.8 ± 3.9 GPa, and hardness of 65.8 ± 1.5 HRA. The in vitro cytotoxicity test suggests that the PM-fabricated Ti-28Nb-35.4Zr alloy by ball-milled powders at 1550 °C has no adverse effects on MC3T3-E1 cells with cytotoxicity ranking of 0 grade, which is nearly close to ELI Ti-6Al-4V or CP Ti. These properties and the net-shape manufacturability makes PM-fabricated Ti-28Nb-35.4Zr alloy a low-cost, highly-biocompatible, Ti-based biomedical alloy. View Full-Text
Keywords: Ti-28Nb-35.4 alloy; powder metallurgy; ball milling; mechanical properties; biocompatibility Ti-28Nb-35.4 alloy; powder metallurgy; ball milling; mechanical properties; biocompatibility
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Xu, W.; Li, M.; Wen, C.; Lv, S.; Liu, C.; Lu, X.; Qu, X. The Mechanical Properties and In Vitro Biocompatibility of PM-Fabricated Ti-28Nb-35.4Zr Alloy for Orthopedic Implant Applications. Materials 2018, 11, 531.

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