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Open AccessArticle

Rough Titanium Oxide Coating Prepared by Micro-Arc Oxidation Causes Down-Regulation of hTERT Expression, Molecular Presentation, and Cytokine Secretion in Tumor Jurkat T Cells

1
Department of Experimental Physics, National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk 634050, Russia
2
Laboratory of Immunology and Cell Biotechnology, Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, Kaliningrad 236029, Russia
3
Department of Pathophysiology, Siberian State Medical University, Tomsk 634050, Russia
4
Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science of SB RAS, Tomsk 634055, Russia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2018, 11(3), 360; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11030360
Received: 16 January 2018 / Revised: 15 February 2018 / Accepted: 24 February 2018 / Published: 28 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metals Functionalization via Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation)
The response of the human Jurkat T cell leukemia-derived cell line (Jurkat T cells) after 24 h of in vitro exposure to a titanium substrate (12 × 12 × 1 mm3) with a bilateral rough (Ra = 2.2–3.7 μm) titanium oxide coating (rTOC) applied using the micro-arc method in a 20% orthophosphoric acid solution was studied. A 1.5-fold down-regulation of hTERT mRNA expression and decreases in CD3, CD4, CD8, and CD95 presentation and IL-4 and TNFα secretion were observed. Jurkat T cell inactivation was not correlated with the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and was not mediated by TiO2 nanoparticles with a diameter of 14 ± 8 nm at doses of 1 mg/L or 10 mg/L. The inhibitory effect of the rTOC (Ra = 2.2–3.7 μm) on the survival of Jurkat T cells (Spearman’s coefficient rs = −0.95; n = 9; p < 0.0001) was demonstrated by an increase in the necrotic cell count among the cell population. In turn, an elevation of the Ra index of the rTOC was accompanied by a linear increase (r = 0.6; p < 0.000001, n = 60) in the magnitude of the negative electrostatic potential of the titanium oxide surface. Thus, the roughness of the rTOC induces an electrostatic potential and decreases the viability of the immortalized Jurkat T cells through mechanisms unrelated to ROS generation. This may be useful for replacement surgery applications of rough TiO2 implants in cancer patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: titanium substrate; surface electrostatic potential; TiO2 nanoparticles; tumor cell death; reactive oxygen species; in vitro titanium substrate; surface electrostatic potential; TiO2 nanoparticles; tumor cell death; reactive oxygen species; in vitro
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Khlusov, I.; Litvinova, L.; Shupletsova, V.; Khaziakhmatova, O.; Melashchenko, E.; Yurova, K.; Leitsin, V.; Khlusova, M.; Pichugin, V.; Sharkeev, Y. Rough Titanium Oxide Coating Prepared by Micro-Arc Oxidation Causes Down-Regulation of hTERT Expression, Molecular Presentation, and Cytokine Secretion in Tumor Jurkat T Cells. Materials 2018, 11, 360.

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