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Review

Recent Developments in the Optimization of the Bulk Heterojunction Morphology of Polymer: Fullerene Solar Cells

1
IPC/i3N—Institute for Polymers and Composites, University of Minho, Campus de Azurém, 4800-058 Guimarães, Portugal
2
QOPNA, Departament of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
3
Department of Physics and i3N—Institute for Nanostructures, Nanomodelling and Nanofabrication, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
4
LEPABE, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Porto, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2018, 11(12), 2560; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11122560
Received: 26 November 2018 / Revised: 11 December 2018 / Accepted: 13 December 2018 / Published: 16 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue From Macromolecules to Materials for Optoelectronic Devices)
Organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices, made with semiconducting polymers, have recently attained a power conversion efficiency (PCE) over 14% in single junction cells and over 17% in tandem cells. These high performances, together with the suitability of the technology to inexpensive large-scale manufacture, over lightweight and flexible plastic substrates using roll-to-roll (R2R) processing, place the technology amongst the most promising for future harvesting of solar energy. Although OPVs using non-fullerene acceptors have recently outperformed their fullerene-based counterparts, the research in the development of new fullerenes and in the improvement of the bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) morphology and device efficiency of polymer:fullerene solar cells remains very active. In this review article, the most relevant research works performed over the last 3 years, that is, since the year 2016 onwards, in the field of fullerene-based polymer solar cells based on the copolymers PTB7, PTB7-Th (also known as PBDTTT-EFT) and PffBT4T-2OD, are presented and discussed. This review is primarily focused on studies that involve the improvement of the BHJ morphology, efficiency and stability of small active area devices (typically < 15 mm2), through the use of different processing strategies such as the use of different fullerene acceptors, different processing solvents and additives and different thermal treatments. View Full-Text
Keywords: organic photovoltaics; fullerenes organic photovoltaics; fullerenes
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gaspar, H.; Figueira, F.; Pereira, L.; Mendes, A.; Viana, J.C.; Bernardo, G. Recent Developments in the Optimization of the Bulk Heterojunction Morphology of Polymer: Fullerene Solar Cells. Materials 2018, 11, 2560. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11122560

AMA Style

Gaspar H, Figueira F, Pereira L, Mendes A, Viana JC, Bernardo G. Recent Developments in the Optimization of the Bulk Heterojunction Morphology of Polymer: Fullerene Solar Cells. Materials. 2018; 11(12):2560. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11122560

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gaspar, Hugo, Flávio Figueira, Luiz Pereira, Adélio Mendes, Júlio C. Viana, and Gabriel Bernardo. 2018. "Recent Developments in the Optimization of the Bulk Heterojunction Morphology of Polymer: Fullerene Solar Cells" Materials 11, no. 12: 2560. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11122560

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