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The Hardness of Additively Manufactured Alloys

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
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Materials 2018, 11(11), 2070; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11112070
Received: 4 October 2018 / Revised: 17 October 2018 / Accepted: 17 October 2018 / Published: 23 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Manufacturing Processes and Systems)
The rapidly evolving field of additive manufacturing requires a periodic assessment of the progress made in understanding the properties of metallic components. Although extensive research has been undertaken by many investigators, the data on properties such as hardness from individual publications are often fragmented. When these published data are critically reviewed, several important insights that cannot be obtained from individual papers become apparent. We examine the role of cooling rate, microstructure, alloy composition and post process heat treatment on the hardness of additively manufactured aluminum, nickel, titanium and iron base components. Hardness data for steels and aluminum alloys processed by additive manufacturing and welding are compared to understand the relative roles of manufacturing processes. Furthermore, the findings are useful to determine if a target hardness is easily attainable either by adjusting AM process variables or through appropriate alloy selection. View Full-Text
Keywords: additive manufacturing; microstructure; hardness; mechanical properties; aluminum alloys; Steels; nickel alloys; titanium alloys additive manufacturing; microstructure; hardness; mechanical properties; aluminum alloys; Steels; nickel alloys; titanium alloys
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Zuback, J.; DebRoy, T. The Hardness of Additively Manufactured Alloys. Materials 2018, 11, 2070.

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