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Biodegradation of Some Organic Materials in Soils and Soil Constructions: Experiments, Modeling and Prevention

1
Soil Science Department, Lomonosov Moscow State University, GSP-1, Leninskie Gory, Moscow 119991, Russia
2
Institute of Forest Science, Russian Academy of Sciences (ILAN), 21, Sovetskaya, Uspenskoe, Moscow 143030, Russia
3
Department of Landscape Design and Sustainable Ecosystems, Agrarian-technological Institute, Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia, Miklukho-Maklaya St., 6, Moscow 117198, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2018, 11(10), 1889; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11101889
Received: 22 June 2018 / Revised: 8 September 2018 / Accepted: 27 September 2018 / Published: 2 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Carbon Materials)
The decomposition of natural and synthetic polymeric materials (peat, humates, biochar, strongly swelling hydrogels and other soil conditioners) in a biologically and chemically active soil environment inevitably leads to a reduced ability to improve the structure, water-retention, absorptive capacity and fertility of artificial soil constructions in urbanized ecosystems and agro landscapes (constructozems). Quantitative assessment of the biodegradation process using field and laboratory incubation experiments, as well as mathematical modeling, showed the possibility of significant (up to 30–50% per year) losses of organic matter of constructozems and a corresponding deterioration of soil quality. Incubation experiments that track the carbon dioxide emission rates of polymeric materials under given thermodynamic conditions allow for the estimation of decomposition rates in addition to an exploration on the dependence of such rates on additions of microbial inhibitors. The use of nomographs provide an opportunity to optimize long-term amendment performance in soil constructions by identifying the most favorable depths to apply amendments to ensure stable functioning during desired in-service timelines in the built environment. The results of the study are useful for geo-engineers and landscaping practitioners. View Full-Text
Keywords: biodestruction; soil constructions; sustainability; polymers; synthetic hydrogels; peat; CO2 emission; water-retention; modeling biodestruction; soil constructions; sustainability; polymers; synthetic hydrogels; peat; CO2 emission; water-retention; modeling
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MDPI and ACS Style

Smagin, A.V.; Sadovnikova, N.B.; Vasenev, V.I.; Smagina, M.V. Biodegradation of Some Organic Materials in Soils and Soil Constructions: Experiments, Modeling and Prevention. Materials 2018, 11, 1889. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11101889

AMA Style

Smagin AV, Sadovnikova NB, Vasenev VI, Smagina MV. Biodegradation of Some Organic Materials in Soils and Soil Constructions: Experiments, Modeling and Prevention. Materials. 2018; 11(10):1889. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11101889

Chicago/Turabian Style

Smagin, Andrey V., Nadezhda B. Sadovnikova, Vyacheslav I. Vasenev, and Marina V. Smagina. 2018. "Biodegradation of Some Organic Materials in Soils and Soil Constructions: Experiments, Modeling and Prevention" Materials 11, no. 10: 1889. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11101889

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