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Open AccessArticle

Detailed Modeling of the Direct Reduction of Iron Ore in a Shaft Furnace

1
Institut Jean Lamour, CNRS, Université de Lorraine, 54011 Nancy, France
2
Laboratory of Excellence on Design of Alloy Metals for Low-Mass Structures (DAMAS), Université de Lorraine, 57073 Metz, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2018, 11(10), 1865; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11101865
Received: 6 September 2018 / Revised: 21 September 2018 / Accepted: 26 September 2018 / Published: 1 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design of Alloy Metals for Low-Mass Structures)
This paper addresses the modeling of the iron ore direct reduction process, a process likely to reduce CO2 emissions from the steel industry. The shaft furnace is divided into three sections (reduction, transition, and cooling), and the model is two-dimensional (cylindrical geometry for the upper sections and conical geometry for the lower one), to correctly describe the lateral gas feed and cooling gas outlet. This model relies on a detailed description of the main physical–chemical and thermal phenomena, using a multi-scale approach. The moving bed is assumed to be comprised of pellets of grains and crystallites. We also take into account eight heterogeneous and two homogeneous chemical reactions. The local mass, energy, and momentum balances are numerically solved, using the finite volume method. This model was successfully validated by simulating the shaft furnaces of two direct reduction plants of different capacities. The calculated results reveal the detailed interior behavior of the shaft furnace operation. Eight different zones can be distinguished, according to their predominant thermal and reaction characteristics. An important finding is the presence of a central zone of lesser temperature and conversion. View Full-Text
Keywords: ironmaking; direct reduction; iron ore; DRI; shaft furnace; mathematical model; heterogeneous kinetics; heat and mass transfer ironmaking; direct reduction; iron ore; DRI; shaft furnace; mathematical model; heterogeneous kinetics; heat and mass transfer
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hamadeh, H.; Mirgaux, O.; Patisson, F. Detailed Modeling of the Direct Reduction of Iron Ore in a Shaft Furnace. Materials 2018, 11, 1865.

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