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Materials 2018, 11(1), 134; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11010134

Nitrogen-Doped Carbon for Red Phosphorous Based Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

1
Institute of Nuclear & New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
2
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
3
Institute of Functional Nano & Soft Materials, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 November 2017 / Revised: 26 December 2017 / Accepted: 11 January 2018 / Published: 15 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Energy Materials)
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Abstract

Serving as conductive matrix and stress buffer, the carbon matrix plays a pivotal role in enabling red phosphorus to be a promising anode material for high capacity lithium ion batteries and sodium ion batteries. In this paper, nitrogen-doping is proved to effective enhance the interface interaction between carbon and red phosphorus. In detail, the adsorption energy between phosphorus atoms and oxygen-containing functional groups on the carbon is significantly reduced by nitrogen doping, as verified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The adsorption mechanisms are further revealed on the basis of DFT (the first density functional theory) calculations. The RPNC (red phosphorus/nitrogen-doped carbon composite) material shows higher cycling stability and higher capacity than that of RPC (red phosphorus/carbon composite) anode. After 100 cycles, the RPNC still keeps discharge capacity of 1453 mAh g−1 at the current density of 300 mA g−1 (the discharge capacity of RPC after 100 cycles is 1348 mAh g−1). Even at 1200 mA g−1, the RPNC composite still delivers a capacity of 1178 mAh g−1. This work provides insight information about the interface interactions between composite materials, as well as new technology develops high performance phosphorus based anode materials. View Full-Text
Keywords: nitrogen-doped carbon; red phosphorous; anode materials; lithium ion batteries nitrogen-doped carbon; red phosphorous; anode materials; lithium ion batteries
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Li, J.; Qian, Y.; Wang, L.; He, X. Nitrogen-Doped Carbon for Red Phosphorous Based Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries. Materials 2018, 11, 134.

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