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Open AccessArticle

Carbon Nanostructure of Kraft Lignin Thermally Treated at 500 to 1000 °C

1
Department of Sustainable Bioproducts, Mississippi State University 1, Starkville, MS 39759, USA
2
USA Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory, Madison, WI 53726, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2017, 10(8), 975; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma10080975
Received: 13 July 2017 / Revised: 17 August 2017 / Accepted: 18 August 2017 / Published: 21 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Structure Analysis and Characterization)
Kraft lignin (KL) was thermally treated at 500 to 1000 °C in an inert atmosphere. Carbon nanostructure parameters of thermally treated KL in terms of amorphous carbon fraction, aromaticity, and carbon nanocrystallites lateral size (La), thickness (Lc), and interlayer space (d002) were analyzed quantitatively using X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Experimental results indicated that increasing temperature reduced amorphous carbon but increased aromaticity in thermally treated KL materials. The Lc value of thermally treated KL materials averaged 0.85 nm and did not change with temperature. The d002 value decreased from 3.56 Å at 500 °C to 3.49 Å at 1000 °C. The La value increased from 0.7 to 1.4 nm as temperature increased from 500 to 1000 °C. A nanostructure model was proposed to describe thermally treated KL under 1000 °C. The thermal stability of heat treated KL increased with temperature rising from 500 to 800 °C. View Full-Text
Keywords: kraft lignin; thermal treatment; nanocrystallites; structural parameters; amorphous carbon kraft lignin; thermal treatment; nanocrystallites; structural parameters; amorphous carbon
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, X.; Yan, Q.; Leng, W.; Li, J.; Zhang, J.; Cai, Z.; Hassan, E.B. Carbon Nanostructure of Kraft Lignin Thermally Treated at 500 to 1000 °C. Materials 2017, 10, 975.

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