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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Macroporous Calcium Phosphate/Chitosan Composites Prepared via Unidirectional Ice Segregation and Subsequent Freeze-Drying

Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid-ICMM, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas-CSIC, Cantoblanco 28049, Madrid, Spain
Tissue Engineering Group, Institute of Biofunctional Studies, Associated Unit to the Institute of Polymer Science and Technology (CSIC), Pharmacy Faculty, Complutense University of Madrid (UCM), Paseo Juan 23, n1 28040, Madrid, Spain
Departamento de Tecnología Química y Energética, Tecnología Química y Ambiental y Tecnología Mecánica y Química Analítica, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Móstoles 28933, Madrid, Spain
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current address: Instituto de Estudios Biofuncionales, Departamento de Química Física II, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad Complutense, Paseo Juan 23, n1 28040, Madrid, Spain.
Academic Editor: Dinesh Agrawal
Materials 2017, 10(5), 516;
Received: 16 March 2017 / Revised: 24 April 2017 / Accepted: 1 May 2017 / Published: 8 May 2017
Calcium phosphate chitosan-based composites have gained much interest in recent years for biomedical purposes. In this paper, three-dimensional calcium phosphate chitosan-based composites with different mineral contents were produced using a green method called ice segregation induced self-assembly (ISISA). In this methodology, ice crystals were used as a template to produce porous structures from an aqueous solution of chitosan (CS) and hydroxyapatite (Hap) also containing acetic acid (pH = 4.5). For better characterization of the nature of the inorganic matter entrapped within the resulting composite, we performed either oxygen plasma or calcination processes to remove the organic matter. The nature of the phosphate salts was studied by XRD and NMR studies. Amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) was identified as the mineral phase in the composites submitted to oxygen plasma, whereas crystalline Hap was obtained after calcination. SEM microscopy revealed the formation of porous structures (porosity around 80–85%) in the original composites, as well as in the inorganic matrices obtained after calcination, with porous channels of up to 50 µm in diameter in the former case and of up to 20 µm in the latter. The biocompatibility of the composites was assessed using two different cell lines: C2C12GFP premyoblastic cells and MC3T3 preosteoblastic cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: biomineralization; amorphous calcium phosphate; hydroxyapatite; chitosan; biocompatibility biomineralization; amorphous calcium phosphate; hydroxyapatite; chitosan; biocompatibility
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MDPI and ACS Style

Aranaz, I.; Martínez-Campos, E.; Moreno-Vicente, C.; Civantos, A.; García-Arguelles, S.; Del Monte, F. Macroporous Calcium Phosphate/Chitosan Composites Prepared via Unidirectional Ice Segregation and Subsequent Freeze-Drying. Materials 2017, 10, 516.

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