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Open AccessArticle

Photocatalytic Degradation of Organic Dye under UV‐A Irradiation Using TiO2‐Vetiver Multifunctional Nano Particles

Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok 65000, Thailand
Centre of Excellence for Innovation and Technology for Water Treatment, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok 65000, Thailand
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok 65000, Thailand
Research Center for Academic Excellence in Petroleum, Petrochemicals and Advanced Materials, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok 65000, Thailand
Department of Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok 65000, Thailand
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2017, 10(2), 122;
Received: 29 November 2016 / Accepted: 25 January 2017 / Published: 30 January 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enhancing the Photocatalytic Activity of TiO2 Photocatalysts)
The properties and photocatalytic performance of anatase nanoparticles of pure TiO2 and a core–shell structure of TiO2 on calcined vetiver grass leaves have been compared. Samples were fabricated by sol‐gel and heating at 450 °C for 5h.The comparison was based on data for X‐ray diffraction(XRD), UV‐Vis spectrophotometry, photoluminescence, transmission electron microscopy, specific surface area measurement, pore volume assessment, and methylene blue degradation testing. The results showed that the pure TiO2 consisted of agglomerated equiaxed nanoparticles of individual grain sizes in the range 10–20 nm. In contrast, the TiO2‐vetiver composite exhibited a core–shell structure consisting of a carbonaceous core and TiO2 shell of thickness 10–15nm. These features influenced the photocatalytic performance in such a way that the lower crosssectional area, greater surface area, and higher pore volume of the TiO2 shell increased the number of active sites, reduced the charge carrier diffusion distance, and reduced the recombination rate, thereby improving the photocatalytic activity. This improvement derived from morphological characteristics rather than crystallographic, semiconducting, or optical properties. The improved performance of the TiO2‐vetiver core–shell was unexpected since the X‐ray diffraction data showed that the crystallinity of the TiO2 was lower than that of the pure TiO2. These outcomes are attributed to the reducing effect of the carbon on the TiO2 during heating, thereby facilitating the formation of oxygen vacancies, which enhance charge separation and hence photocatalysis by TiO2. View Full-Text
Keywords: TiO2; vetiver grass; core–shell; photocatalysis; carbon reduction; nanostructure TiO2; vetiver grass; core–shell; photocatalysis; carbon reduction; nanostructure
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MDPI and ACS Style

Thao, L.T.S.; Dang, T.T.T.; Khanitchaidecha, W.; Channei, D.; Nakaruk, A. Photocatalytic Degradation of Organic Dye under UV‐A Irradiation Using TiO2‐Vetiver Multifunctional Nano Particles. Materials 2017, 10, 122.

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