Next Article in Journal
Fracture Assessment of PEEK under Static Loading by Means of the Local Strain Energy Density
Previous Article in Journal
Mechanical, Thermodynamic and Electronic Properties of Wurtzite and Zinc-Blende GaN Crystals
Previous Article in Special Issue
Construction and Characterization of a Chitosan-Immobilized-Enzyme and β-Cyclodextrin-Included-Ferrocene-Based Electrochemical Biosensor for H2O2 Detection
Article Menu
Issue 12 (December) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Materials 2017, 10(12), 1420;

Conjugated Polymer Nanoparticles for Bioimaging

Institute for Materials Research (IMO-IMOMEC), Design & Synthesis of Organic Semiconductors (DSOS), UHasselt—Hasselt University, Agoralaan, 3590 Diepenbeek, Belgium
Associated Lab IMOMEC, IMEC, Wetenschapspark 1, 3590 Diepenbeek, Belgium
Institute for Materials Research (IMO-IMOMEC), Nanobiophysics and Soft Matter Interfaces (NSI), UHasselt—Hasselt University, Agoralaan, 3590 Diepenbeek, Belgium
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 October 2017 / Revised: 27 November 2017 / Accepted: 5 December 2017 / Published: 12 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Conjugated Polymers for Bioimaging and Biosensing)
Full-Text   |   PDF [17873 KB, uploaded 12 December 2017]   |  


During the last decade, conjugated polymers have emerged as an interesting class of fluorescence imaging probes since they generally show high fluorescence brightness, high photostability, fast emission rates, non-blinking behavior and low cytotoxicity. The main concern related to most conjugated polymers is their lack of hydrophilicity and thereby poor bio-availability. This can, however, be overcome by the formulation of conjugated polymer nanoparticles in aqueous medium. This review provides an overview of the different techniques employed for the preparation of conjugated polymer nanoparticles, together with methods to improve their photoluminescence quantum yields. For selective targeting of specific cells, dedicated surface functionalization protocols have been developed, using different functional groups for ligand immobilization. Finally, conjugated polymer nanoparticles have recently also been employed for theranostic applications, wherein the particles are simultaneously used as fluorescent probes and carriers for anti-tumor drugs. View Full-Text
Keywords: conjugated polymers; nanoparticles; fluorescence; bioimaging conjugated polymers; nanoparticles; fluorescence; bioimaging

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Braeken, Y.; Cheruku, S.; Ethirajan, A.; Maes, W. Conjugated Polymer Nanoparticles for Bioimaging. Materials 2017, 10, 1420.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Materials EISSN 1996-1944 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top