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Open AccessArticle

Edible Scaffolds Based on Non-Mammalian Biopolymers for Myoblast Growth

Biopolymer Research and Engineering Lab (BiopREL), Universidad de los Andes, Avenida Monseñor Alvaro del Portillo 12455, Las Condes, Santiago 7550000, Chile
Bio-Active Materials Group, School of Materials, MSS Tower, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, UK
Laboratorio de Biología de la Reproducción y del Desarrollo, Instituto de Biología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valparaíso, Avenida Gran Bretaña 1111, Valparaíso 2340000, Chile
Escuela de Química y Farmacia, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Valparaíso, Avenida Gran Bretaña 1093, Valparaíso 2340000, Chile
Center for Integrative Medicine and Innovative Science (CIMIS), Universidad Andrés Bello, Echaurren 183, Santiago 8320000, Chile
Centro de Biotecnología, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Avenida España 1680, Valparaíso 2340000, Chile
Departamento de Física, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Avenida España 1680, Valparaíso 2340000, Chile
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2017, 10(12), 1404;
Received: 4 November 2017 / Revised: 3 December 2017 / Accepted: 5 December 2017 / Published: 8 December 2017
In vitro meat has recently emerged as a new concept in food biotechnology. Methods to produce in vitro meat generally involve the growth of muscle cells that are cultured on scaffolds using bioreactors. Suitable scaffold design and manufacture are critical to downstream culture and meat production. Most current scaffolds are based on mammalian-derived biomaterials, the use of which is counter to the desire to obviate mammal slaughter in artificial meat production. Consequently, most of the knowledge is related to the design and control of scaffold properties based on these mammalian-sourced materials. To address this, four different scaffold materials were formulated using non-mammalian sources, namely, salmon gelatin, alginate, and additives including gelling agents and plasticizers. The scaffolds were produced using a freeze-drying process, and the physical, mechanical, and biological properties of the scaffolds were evaluated. The most promising scaffolds were produced from salmon gelatin, alginate, agarose, and glycerol, which exhibited relatively large pore sizes (~200 μm diameter) and biocompatibility, permitting myoblast cell adhesion (~40%) and growth (~24 h duplication time). The biodegradation profiles of the scaffolds were followed, and were observed to be less than 25% after 4 weeks. The scaffolds enabled suitable myogenic response, with high cell proliferation, viability, and adequate cell distribution throughout. This system composed of non-mammalian edible scaffold material and muscle-cells is promising for the production of in vitro meat. View Full-Text
Keywords: biopolymer; edible material; in vitro meat; scaffold biopolymer; edible material; in vitro meat; scaffold
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MDPI and ACS Style

Enrione, J.; Blaker, J.J.; Brown, D.I.; Weinstein-Oppenheimer, C.R.; Pepczynska, M.; Olguín, Y.; Sánchez, E.; Acevedo, C.A. Edible Scaffolds Based on Non-Mammalian Biopolymers for Myoblast Growth. Materials 2017, 10, 1404.

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