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Alkaline Materials and Regenerative Endodontics: A Review

The School of Dentistry, The University of Queensland, Brisbane 4072, Australia
School of Dentistry, UCLA, CHS A3-075, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1668, USA
College of Dentistry, New York University, 345 East 24th Street, New York, NY 10010, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2017, 10(12), 1389;
Received: 25 September 2017 / Revised: 23 November 2017 / Accepted: 29 November 2017 / Published: 5 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Biomaterials 2017)
PDF [519 KB, uploaded 5 December 2017]


Periapical health is the primary goal of endodontic treatment in mature and immature teeth. In addition, the goals of treatment of immature teeth with arrested root development include root growth to length and maturation of the apex, as well as thickening of the canal wall. These goals are valid for immature teeth that have been subjected to trauma and dental caries or that are the result of developmental anomalies that expose the tooth to the risk of pulp necrosis and consequently result in the cessation of root maturation. Regenerative endodontic procedures (REPs) have been described as a “paradigm shift” in the treatment of immature teeth with pulp necrosis and underdeveloped roots, as there is the potential for further root maturation and return of vitality. Treatment with REPs is advocated as the treatment of choice for immature teeth with pulp necrosis. REP protocols involve the use of alkaline biomaterials, primarily sodium hypochlorite, calcium hydroxide, mineral trioxide aggregates and Biodentine, and are the essential components of a successful treatment regimen. View Full-Text
Keywords: regenerative endodontics; immature root; alkaline materials; disinfection; calcium silicates regenerative endodontics; immature root; alkaline materials; disinfection; calcium silicates

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Kahler, B.; Chugal, N.; Lin, L.M. Alkaline Materials and Regenerative Endodontics: A Review. Materials 2017, 10, 1389.

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