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Materials 2017, 10(12), 1358;

Effect of Clinically Relevant CAD/CAM Zirconia Polishing on Gingival Fibroblast Proliferation and Focal Adhesions

Department of Physics, College of Arts and Sciences, Creighton University, 2500 California Plaza, Omaha, NE 68178, USA
Department of Oral Biology, School of Dentistry, Creighton University, 2802 Webster Street, Omaha, NE 68178, USA
Present Address: Minnesota Dental Research Center for Biomaterials and Biomechanics (MDRCBB), Department of Restorative Sciences, School of Dentistry, University of Minnesota, 515 Delaware Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA.
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 September 2017 / Revised: 6 November 2017 / Accepted: 22 November 2017 / Published: 27 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Implant Materials)
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Mucosal seal formation around dental abutments is critical to the successful integration of dental implants into the human oral cavity. No information exists for how clinically relevant polishing procedures for computer-aided design and computer-aided manufactured (CAD/CAM) zirconia abutments affects cellular responses important to mucosal seal formation. CAD/CAM zirconia was divided into four groups for clinically relevant polishing utilizing commercial polishing heads: control, coarse, coarse plus medium, and coarse plus medium plus fine. Surfaces were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and optical profilometry (OP). Subsequently, human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) were seeded onto the zirconia surfaces. Proliferation was measured via a quantitative SEM technique and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) phosphorylation status was measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results showed an increase in proliferation on all polished surfaces as compared to the control. Phosphorylation of FAK at tyrosine 397 (Y397) was up-modulated on the control surfaces. The associated cell adaptation is discussed. In all cases, FAK phosphorylation was greater at 24 h than 48 h. These results suggest that clinicians should be mindful of the effects of abutment polishing methodology, as this may have an impact on early mucosal seal formation. View Full-Text
Keywords: dental materials; dental implant; mucosal seal; zirconia; gingival fibroblast; abutment dental materials; dental implant; mucosal seal; zirconia; gingival fibroblast; abutment

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Fischer, N.G.; Wong, J.; Baruth, A.; Cerutis, D.R. Effect of Clinically Relevant CAD/CAM Zirconia Polishing on Gingival Fibroblast Proliferation and Focal Adhesions. Materials 2017, 10, 1358.

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