. The objectives of this study were to: (1) develop a bioactive multifunctional composite (BMC) via nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP), 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC), dimethylaminohexadecyl methacrylate (DMAHDM) and nanoparticles of silver (NAg); and (2) investigate the effects of combined BMC + poly (amido amine) (PAMAM) on remineralization of demineralized root dentin in a cyclic artificial saliva/lactic acid environment for the first time. Methods
. Root dentin specimens were prepared and demineralized with 37% phosphoric acid for 15 s. Four groups were prepared: (1) root dentin control; (2) root dentin with BMC; (3) root dentin with PAMAM; (4) root dentin with BMC + PAMAM. Specimens were treated with a cyclic artificial saliva/lactic acid regimen for 21 days. Calcium (Ca) and phosphate (P) ion concentrations and acid neutralization were determined. The remineralized root dentin specimens were examined via hardness testing and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results
. Mechanical properties of BMC were similar to commercial control composites (p
= 0.913). BMC had excellent Ca and P ion release and acid-neutralization capability. BMC or PAMAM alone each achieved slight mineral regeneration in demineralized root dentin. The combined BMC + PAMAM induced the greatest root dentin remineralization, and increased the hardness of pre-demineralized root dentin to match that of healthy root dentin (p
= 0.521). Significance
. The excellent root dentin remineralization effects of BMC + PAMAM were demonstrated for the first time. BMC + PAMAM induced effective and complete root dentin remineralization in an acid challenge environment. The novel BMC + PAMAM method is promising for Class V and other restorations to remineralize and protect tooth structures.
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