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Materials 2017, 10(1), 89;

Combining Bioactive Multifunctional Dental Composite with PAMAM for Root Dentin Remineralization

State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China
Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Division, Department of Endodontics, Periodontics and Prosthodontics, University of Maryland School of Dentistry, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
L.D. Caulk Division, Dentsply Sirona Restorative, Milford, DE 19963, USA
Center for Stem Cell Biology & Regenerative Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, MD 21250, USA
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Franz Weber
Received: 5 December 2016 / Revised: 16 January 2017 / Accepted: 17 January 2017 / Published: 22 January 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Biomaterials)
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Objectives. The objectives of this study were to: (1) develop a bioactive multifunctional composite (BMC) via nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP), 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC), dimethylaminohexadecyl methacrylate (DMAHDM) and nanoparticles of silver (NAg); and (2) investigate the effects of combined BMC + poly (amido amine) (PAMAM) on remineralization of demineralized root dentin in a cyclic artificial saliva/lactic acid environment for the first time. Methods. Root dentin specimens were prepared and demineralized with 37% phosphoric acid for 15 s. Four groups were prepared: (1) root dentin control; (2) root dentin with BMC; (3) root dentin with PAMAM; (4) root dentin with BMC + PAMAM. Specimens were treated with a cyclic artificial saliva/lactic acid regimen for 21 days. Calcium (Ca) and phosphate (P) ion concentrations and acid neutralization were determined. The remineralized root dentin specimens were examined via hardness testing and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results. Mechanical properties of BMC were similar to commercial control composites (p = 0.913). BMC had excellent Ca and P ion release and acid-neutralization capability. BMC or PAMAM alone each achieved slight mineral regeneration in demineralized root dentin. The combined BMC + PAMAM induced the greatest root dentin remineralization, and increased the hardness of pre-demineralized root dentin to match that of healthy root dentin (p = 0.521). Significance. The excellent root dentin remineralization effects of BMC + PAMAM were demonstrated for the first time. BMC + PAMAM induced effective and complete root dentin remineralization in an acid challenge environment. The novel BMC + PAMAM method is promising for Class V and other restorations to remineralize and protect tooth structures. View Full-Text
Keywords: root dentin; root caries; multifunctional composite; acid challenge; calcium phosphate nanoparticles; poly (amido amine) root dentin; root caries; multifunctional composite; acid challenge; calcium phosphate nanoparticles; poly (amido amine)

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Xiao, S.; Liang, K.; Weir, M.D.; Cheng, L.; Liu, H.; Zhou, X.; Ding, Y.; Xu, H.H.K. Combining Bioactive Multifunctional Dental Composite with PAMAM for Root Dentin Remineralization. Materials 2017, 10, 89.

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