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Open AccessArticle

Biocompatibility and Inflammatory Potential of Titanium Alloys Cultivated with Human Osteoblasts, Fibroblasts and Macrophages

Biomechanics and Implant Technology Laboratory, Department of Orthopaedics, University Medicine Rostock, Doberaner Strasse 142, 18057 Rostock, Germany
Department Medical Engineering, Fraunhofer Institute for Machine Tools and Forming Technology IWU, Nöthnitzer Strasse 44, 01187 Dresden, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Mohan Jacob
Materials 2017, 10(1), 52;
Received: 13 October 2016 / Revised: 7 December 2016 / Accepted: 4 January 2017 / Published: 10 January 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biocompatibility of Materials)
PDF [4703 KB, uploaded 10 January 2017]


The biomaterials used to maintain or replace functions in the human body consist mainly of metals, ceramics or polymers. In orthopedic surgery, metallic materials, especially titanium and its alloys, are the most common, due to their excellent mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility. Aside from the established Ti6Al4V alloy, shape memory materials such as nickel-titanium (NiTi) have risen in importance, but are also discussed because of the adverse effects of nickel ions. These might be reduced by specific surface modifications. In the present in vitro study, the osteoblastic cell line MG-63 as well as primary human osteoblasts, fibroblasts, and macrophages were cultured on titanium alloys (forged Ti6Al4V, additive manufactured Ti6Al4V, NiTi, and Diamond-Like-Carbon (DLC)-coated NiTi) to verify their specific biocompatibility and inflammatory potential. Additive manufactured Ti6Al4V and NiTi revealed the highest levels of metabolic cell activity. DLC-coated NiTi appeared as a suitable surface for cell growth, showing the highest collagen production. None of the implant materials caused a strong inflammatory response. In general, no distinct cell-specific response could be observed for the materials and surface coating used. In summary, all tested titanium alloys seem to be biologically appropriate for application in orthopedic surgery. View Full-Text
Keywords: NiTi; DLC; Ti6Al4V; cell viability; human osteoblasts; macrophages NiTi; DLC; Ti6Al4V; cell viability; human osteoblasts; macrophages

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Markhoff, J.; Krogull, M.; Schulze, C.; Rotsch, C.; Hunger, S.; Bader, R. Biocompatibility and Inflammatory Potential of Titanium Alloys Cultivated with Human Osteoblasts, Fibroblasts and Macrophages. Materials 2017, 10, 52.

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