Next Article in Journal
Measuring the Actual Energy Cost Performance of Green Buildings: A Test of the Earned Value Management Approach
Previous Article in Journal
Catalytic Flash Pyrolysis of Biomass Using Different Types of Zeolite and Online Vapor Fractionation
Article Menu
Issue 3 (March) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Energies 2016, 9(3), 189;

Phenol-Formaldehyde Resin-Based Carbons for CO2 Separation at Sub-Atmospheric Pressures

Instituto Nacional del Carbón, INCAR-CSIC, Apartado 73, 33080 Oviedo, Spain
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Wei-Hsin Chen
Received: 16 December 2015 / Revised: 9 February 2016 / Accepted: 6 March 2016 / Published: 11 March 2016
Full-Text   |   PDF [4127 KB, uploaded 11 March 2016]   |  


The challenge of developing effective separation and purification technologies that leave much smaller energy footprints is greater for carbon dioxide (CO2) than for other gases. In addition to its involvement in climate change, CO2 is present as an impurity in biogas and bio-hydrogen (biological production by dark fermentation), in post-combustion processes (flue gas, CO2-N2) and many other gas streams. Selected phenol-formaldehyde resin-based activated carbons prepared in our laboratory have been evaluated under static conditions (adsorption isotherms) as potential adsorbents for CO2 separation at sub-atmospheric pressures, i.e., in post-combustion processes or from biogas and bio-hydrogen streams. CO2, H2, N2, and CH4 adsorption isotherms at 25 °C and up to 100 kPa were obtained using a volumetric equipment and were correlated by applying the Sips model. Adsorption equilibrium was then predicted for multicomponent gas mixtures by extending the multicomponent Sips model and the Ideal Adsorbed Solution Theory (IAST) in conjunction with the Sips model. The CO2 uptakes of the resin-derived carbons from CO2-CH4, CO2-H2, and CO2-N2 at atmospheric pressure were greater than those of the reference commercial carbon (Calgon BPL). The performance of the resin-derived carbons in terms of equilibrium of adsorption seems therefore relevant to CO2 separation in post-combustion (flue gas, CO2-N2) and in hydrogen fermentation (CO2-H2, CO2-CH4). View Full-Text
Keywords: CO2 separation; adsorption; phenolic-resin; activated carbons CO2 separation; adsorption; phenolic-resin; activated carbons

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Álvarez-Gutiérrez, N.; Gil, M.V.; Martínez, M.; Rubiera, F.; Pevida, C. Phenol-Formaldehyde Resin-Based Carbons for CO2 Separation at Sub-Atmospheric Pressures. Energies 2016, 9, 189.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Energies EISSN 1996-1073 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top