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Energies 2015, 8(11), 12881-12897;

An Analysis of Decentralized Demand Response as Frequency Control Support under CriticalWind Power Oscillations

CF Power Ltd., Calgary, AB T2M 3Y7, Canada
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Cartagena, Cartagena 30203, Spain
Renewable Energy Research Institute and DIEEAC/EDII-AB, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Albacete 02071, Spain
Department of Electrical Eng., Technical University of Cartagena, Cartagena 30202, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Ying-Yi Hong
Received: 4 September 2015 / Revised: 28 October 2015 / Accepted: 4 November 2015 / Published: 13 November 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electric Power Systems Research)
PDF [1671 KB, uploaded 13 November 2015]


In power systems with high wind energy penetration, the conjunction of wind power fluctuations and power system inertia reduction can lead to large frequency excursions, where the operating reserves of conventional power generation may be insufficient to restore the power balance. With the aim of evaluating the demand-side contribution to frequency control, a complete process to determine critical wind oscillations in power systems with high wind penetration is discussed and described in this paper. This process implies thousands of wind power series simulations, which have been carried out through a validated offshore wind farm model. A large number of different conditions have been taken into account, such as frequency dead bands, the percentages of controllable demand and seasonal factor influence on controllable loads. Relevant results and statistics are also included in the paper. View Full-Text
Keywords: wind power generation; frequency control; load management; demand response wind power generation; frequency control; load management; demand response

Figure 1

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Villena, J.; Vigueras-Rodríguez, A.; Gómez-Lázaro, E.; Fuentes-Moreno, J.Á.; Muñoz-Benavente, I.;  , Á.M.-G. An Analysis of Decentralized Demand Response as Frequency Control Support under CriticalWind Power Oscillations. Energies 2015, 8, 12881-12897.

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