- freely available
Energies 2013, 6(9), 4945-4955; doi:10.3390/en6094945
2. Calculation Methods for Determining Blended-Fuel Properties
|Fuel parameter||Unit||ISO8217 RMA||ISO8217 DMA||EN 14214 biodiesel|
|Cetane number, min||-||20||40||51|
|Density (at 15 °C)||kg/m3||920 max||890 max||860 to 900|
|Flash point, min||°C||60.0||60.0||120.0|
|Carbon residue, max||wt.%||2.5||0.3||0.05 *|
|Kinematic viscosity (at 40 °C)||mm2/s||10.0 max||2.0 to 6.0||3.5 to 5.0|
|Water content, max||ppm||3,000||-||500|
|Acid number, max||mg KOH/g||2.5||0.5||0.5|
3. Results and Discussion
3.1. Flash Point
3.2. Sulfur Content
3.3. Kinematic Viscosity
3.4. Carbon Residue
3.5. Lower Heating Value (LHV)
- Residual marine fuel RMA has the worst fuel characteristics compared with distillate marine fuel DMA and biodiesel. Biodiesel blending could improve the fuel properties of residual marine fuel RMA more significantly compared with distillate marine fuel DMA.
- Biodiesel has a significantly higher flash point than marine fuels DMA and RMA. A 20 vol% biodiesel blending in marine fuel RMA could increase its flash point by 20%, thus increasing fuel safety during operation and storage periods.
- The fuel sulfur limit of marine fuel oil reaches as high as 4.5 wt% based on the ISO 8217 specification of residual marine fuel. Biodiesel contains almost no sulfur. Only a 23.0 vol% biodiesel blending in marine fuel RMA would reduce the sulfur content to below 3.5 wt%, which would meet the requirement of the 2008 MARPOL Annex VI Amendment .
- Biodiesel blending decreases the kinematic viscosity of marine fuel. A 20 vol% biodiesel blending in marine fuel RMA could reduce its kinematic viscosity by 12.9%.
- Much less carbon residue is released after the burning of biodiesel compared with marine fuel RMA. The carbon residue could be decreased by 23.6% if 25 vol% biodiesel were blended into residual marine fuel RMA. The combustion characteristics of the blended marine fuel would also be greatly improved.
- The lower heating value of the blended marine fuel DMA and RMA with 20 vol% biodiesel is found to decrease by 1.9% and 0.1%, respectively.
Conflicts of Interest
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