# Proposed Extension of the U.S.–Caribbean Super Grid to South America for Resilience during Hurricanes

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

#### 1.1. Background

#### 1.2. Literature Review

#### 1.3. Research Gap and Motivation

#### 1.4. Challenge

#### 1.5. Contribution

#### 1.6. Paper Organization

## 2. Materials and Spatiotemporal Method

#### 2.1. Technical Feasibility of the Proposed Extension

#### 2.2. Method for Estimation of Wind Power under Hurricanes

#### 2.3. Modeling of Hurricane Wind Speed and Shape

#### 2.4. Modeling of Hurricane Trajectory

- (step 1)
- (step 2)
- By visual inspection of the map, locate the two coordinates of the most western and eastern trajectories of a hurricane initiating over the North Atlantic. The western coordinate point will be assigned to synthetic trajectory #1 and the eastern coordinate point to trajectory #10;
- (step 3)
- Divide the latitudes of points #1 and #10 by 9 to obtain the latitude angle step. This latitude angle step should be added to the latitude of point #1 to estimate the latitudes of trajectory #2 to #9 by successive increments of the latitude angle step. Similarly, calculate the longitude of trajectories #2 to #9 by successive increments of longitude steps. This procedure defines the origin coordinates of the hurricane trajectories in the North Atlantic;
- (step 4)
- By visual inspection of the same map, most of the hurricane’s trajectories have a parabola vertex between Texas and Florida at latitude 30 degrees. Locate the most western and eastern points of historical hurricane trajectories and assign them to vertex points #1 and #10. Calculate the longitude angle step by dividing the angle difference by 9. Obtain the vertex coordinates of parabolic trajectory #2 to #9 by successive increments of the same longitude angle step. This procedure determines the destination vertex coordinates of all ten trajectories;
- (step 5)
- Having the origin and vertex coordinates of parabolic trajectories #1 to #10, using Equation (3) and the equations relating the parabola vertex indicated in (4)–(6), it is possible to find the coefficients a, b, and c of the parabola indicated in Equation (3). These coefficients are indicated in Table 3.

#### 2.5. Modeling of Wind Turbines

#### 2.6. Assessment of Sustainable Hurricane Energy

#### 2.7. Algorithm for Estimation of Wind Power Profile in Super Grids

Algorithm 1 Pseudocode for Wind Power Profile |

Set all input data for modeling of: |

• Hurricanes speed and shape (central pressure, and maximum radius) |

• Hurricane trajectories (origin and vertex of parabola) |

• Turbines (rated power, power vs wind curve) |

Select case-study scenario: |

• Hurricane category (category 5) |

• Hurricane trajectory (#1 and 7) |

• Interconnection of Caribbean with South America (with or without) |

Loop 1: Move hurricane each hour over Caribbeans |

For i: = 1 to 336 hours (14 days) |

Loop 2: Track all turbines for each hurricane-step |

For j: = 1 to number_of_turbines |

• Move hurricane’s eye 1-hour step on parabola trajectory. |

• Calculate distance d between hurricane eye and turbine j. |

• Calculate angle between hurricane front and turbine location. |

• Obtain the wind speed on turbine location. |

• Store the sum of wind speed of all turbines in each hour. |

• Obtain and store the instantaneous turbine power profile. |

• Store the sum of power profile of all turbines in each hour. |

End of Loop 2 |

End of Loop 1 |

Calculate Energy of Hurricane [MWh] |

Calculate reduction of cost of fossil energy [$] |

Calculate CO_{2} emissions [tons] |

Plot results: |

• map of hurricane trajectory |

• power profile of all turbines. |

## 3. Results

#### 3.1. Scenario 1

#### 3.2. Scenario 2

#### 3.3. Scenario 3

#### 3.4. Scenario 4

#### 3.5. Comparative Analysis between Scenarios

## 4. Discussion

#### 4.1. Contributions of This Work

_{2}emissions that could be potentially mitigated during hurricane events by using the peak surplus power delivered by hurricane-proof turbines. Hurricane events occur several times every year, potentially increasing the magnitude of the impact of this research. Also, the improved element of the spatiotemporal method comes with an additional algorithm to quantify the potential economic opportunity brought by hurricanes that the previous version of the method in reference [7] was not capable of calculating.

#### 4.2. Limitations and Topics for Future Research

## 5. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Data Availability Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

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**Figure 3.**Estimated power profile in hurricane trajectory 1 without Super Grid extension to South America.

**Figure 5.**Estimated power profile in hurricane trajectory 7 without Super Grid extension to South America.

Var. | Abbrevation | Unit | Description | Value |
---|---|---|---|---|

${x}_{h1}$ | ${Lat}_{eye}$ | degree | Latitude of the eye | Moving on the map |

${x}_{h2}$ | ${Lon}_{eye}$ | degree | Longitude of the eye | Moving on the map |

${x}_{h3}$ | t | days | Time from origin | 14 days |

${x}_{h4}$ | cat | - | Category (3, 4, or 5) | 5 |

${x}_{h5}$ | ${R}_{max}$ | km | Radius of max speed | 27.78 |

${x}_{h6}$ | $B$ | - | Holland parameter | 1.34 (offshore), 1.22 (onshore) |

${x}_{h7}$ | $\rho $ | ${\mathrm{kg}/\mathrm{m}}^{3}$ | Air density | 1.225 |

${x}_{h8}$ | $r$ | km | Distance from the eye of the hurricane | Moving on the map |

${x}_{h9}$ | ${P}_{n}$ | mbar | Ambient pressure | 1008 |

${x}_{h10}$ | ${P}_{c}$ | mbar | Central pressure | 919 |

${x}_{h11}$ | ${V}_{tr}$ | m/s | Hurricane translation speed | 9.722 |

${x}_{h12}$ | ${\theta}_{tr}$ | rad | Angle between the hurricane front and turbine | Moving on the map |

${x}_{h13}$ | ${f}_{c}$ | - | Coriolis parameter | Dependent on latitude |

Var. | Abbreviation | Unit | Description |
---|---|---|---|

${x}_{s1}$ | ${n}_{p}$ | - | Trajectory number |

${x}_{s2}$ | ${Lat}_{k}$ | degree | Latitude of the parabola at time k |

${x}_{s3}$ | ${Lon}_{k}$ | degree | Longitude of the parabola at time k |

${x}_{s4}$ | ${Lat}_{v}$ | degree | Latitude of the parabola vertex |

${x}_{s5}$ | ${Lon}_{v}$ | degree | Longitude of the parabola vertex |

${x}_{s6}$ | $\u2206step$ | h | One hour angle step |

${x}_{s7}$ | $a$ | - | Parabola coefficient |

${x}_{s8}$ | $b$ | - | Parabola coefficient |

${x}_{s9}$ | $c$ | - | Parabola coefficient |

${\mathit{n}}_{\mathit{p}}$ | $\mathit{a}$ | $\mathit{b}$ | $\mathit{c}$ |
---|---|---|---|

1 | 0.1270 | −1.9157 | −25.6145 |

2 | 0.1342 | −2.2922 | −23.0637 |

3 | 0.1423 | −2.7131 | −19.9252 |

4 | 0.1513 | −3.1866 | −16.0901 |

5 | 0.1614 | −3.7227 | −11.4218 |

6 | 0.1730 | −4.3341 | −5.7472 |

7 | 0.1862 | −5.0370 | 1.1560 |

8 | 0.2015 | −5.8525 | 9.5775 |

9 | 0.2193 | −6.8082 | 19.9013 |

10 | 0.2403 | −7.8513 | 31.2000 |

Var. | Abbreviation | Unit | Value | Description |
---|---|---|---|---|

${x}_{t1}$ | ${Lat}_{t}$ | degree | User-defined | Latitude of the turbine |

${x}_{t2}$ | ${Lon}_{t}$ | degree | User-defined | Longitude of the turbine |

${x}_{t3}$ | h | m | 90 | Hub height above the floor or sea level [7] |

${x}_{t4}$ | ${T}_{power}$ | MW | 10 | Rated power [7] |

${x}_{t5}$ | ${v}_{rated}$ | m/s | 14 | Rated speed [7] |

${x}_{t6}$ | ${v}_{cutout}$ | m/s | 40 | High cutout speed [7] (2050 estimated) |

${x}_{t7}$ | ${v}_{cutin}$ | m/s | 3 | Cut-in speed (minimum speed) [7] |

**Table 5.**Fossil fuel capacity over the original Caribbean Super Grid, including the U.S. and British Virgin Islands.

Country or Territory | Population (million) | Installed Power Capacity (Estimated in 2016) [MW] | Installed Capacity Driven by Fossil Fuel |
---|---|---|---|

The Bahamas | 0.089 | 129 | 100% |

Cuba | 11.3 | 6998 | 91% |

Haiti | 11.5 | 332 | 82% |

Dominican Republic | 11 | 3839 | 77% |

Jamaica | 3 | 1078 | 83% |

Puerto Rico | 2.8 | 6294 | 94% |

U.S. Virgin Islands (St. Thomas and St. John) | 0.0557 | 172 | 98% |

U.S. Virgin Islands (Saint Croix) | 0.0506 | 153 | 98% |

The British Virgin Islands | 0.030 | 45 | 97% |

Total | 39.825 | 19,040 | - |

Country or Territory | Population | Installed Capacity [MW] | Installed Capacity Driven by Fossil Fuel |
---|---|---|---|

Anguilla | 19,079 | 26 | 96.2% |

Montserrat | 5440 | 5 | 91% |

Guadeloupe | 411,507 | 551.2 | 68.9% |

Dominica | 74,629 | 42 | 74.8% |

Martinique | 361,225 | 438.1 | 85.1% |

St. Lucia | 167,122 | 92 | 99.1% |

St. Vincent and the Grenadines | 100,969 | 49 | 73.5% |

Grenada | 113,949 | 55 | 98.3% |

Trinidad and Tobago | 1,405,646 | 2123 | 99.9% |

Guyana | 789,683 | 380 | 97.4% |

Suriname | 632,638 | 542 | 40.5% |

French Guyana | 327,000 | 281.2 | 45.3% |

Brazil | 217,240,060 | 199,037 | 11.8% |

Total | 221,648,947 | 203,621 | 13.4% |

**Table 7.**Comparative analysis between U.S.–Caribbean Super Grid with and without extension in scenarios #1 to #4.

U.S.–Caribbean Super Grid | Without Extension to South America | With Extension to South America |
---|---|---|

Number of turbines | 75 (U.S.) and 10 (North Caribbean) | 75 (U.S.), 10 (North Caribbean), 4 (South Caribbean), and 24 (South America) |

Onshore/offshore turbines | 62/23 | 62/51 |

Scenarios | Scenario #1 and Scenario #2 | Scenario #3 and Scenario #4 |

Power profiles | Figure 3 and Figure 5 (trajectory 1 and 7) | Figure 7 and Figure 9 (trajectory 1 and 7) |

Location of peak: | Caribbean | Caribbean |

Pmax [MW] | 240 and 245 | 400 and 370 |

Pmin [MW] | 198 and 198 | 335 and 335 |

${\u2206}_{max}$ | 17.50% and 19.18% | 16.25% and 9.46% |

Location of peak: | U.S. Midwest | U.S. Midwest |

Pmax [MW] | 557 and 456 | 693 and 590 |

Pmin [MW] | 198 and 198 | 335 and 335 |

${\u2206}_{max}$ | 64.45% and 56.58% | 51.66% and 43.22% |

**Table 8.**Comparative analysis of the reduction in cost and carbon emissions under Category 5 hurricanes in scenarios #1 to #4.

U.S.–Caribbean Super Grid | Without Extension to South America | With Extension to South America |
---|---|---|

Number of turbines | 85 | 113 |

Scenarios | Scenario #1 and Scenario #2 | Scenario #3 and Scenario #4 |

Trajectory | #1 and 7 | #1 and 7 |

Wind energy [GWh] | 27.0 and 14.6 | 28.9 and 15.40 |

Natural gas savings [USD millions] | 4.7 and 2.5 | 5.1 and 2.7 |

CO_{2} reduction [tons] | 22,471 and 12,169 | 24,107 and 12,821 |

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## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Itiki, R.; Manjrekar, M.; Di Santo, S.G.
Proposed Extension of the U.S.–Caribbean Super Grid to South America for Resilience during Hurricanes. *Energies* **2024**, *17*, 233.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en17010233

**AMA Style**

Itiki R, Manjrekar M, Di Santo SG.
Proposed Extension of the U.S.–Caribbean Super Grid to South America for Resilience during Hurricanes. *Energies*. 2024; 17(1):233.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en17010233

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Itiki, Rodney, Madhav Manjrekar, and Silvio Giuseppe Di Santo.
2024. "Proposed Extension of the U.S.–Caribbean Super Grid to South America for Resilience during Hurricanes" *Energies* 17, no. 1: 233.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en17010233