# Increasing the Efficiency of Diagnostics in the Brush-Commutator Assembly of a Direct Current Electric Motor

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Materials and Methods

^{−1}.

_{br}= const is assumed, and the resistances of the running-in and running-out edges of the brush change inversely proportional to the contact area and are equal, respectively.

_{d}. For this purpose, the error area was determined beforehand (Figure 5).

_{1}(J) is the experimentally obtained volt-ampere characteristic; f

_{2}(J) is its approximation under consideration.

_{d}= f/F.

_{1}arctg(B

_{l}J); ∆U = A

_{l}ln[B

_{l}|J| + l]sign J,

_{1}and B

_{1}are constant coefficients.

_{1}, a

_{2}, a

_{3}, as well as J

_{1}and J

_{2}, can be varied within almost any limits. Practice has shown that, with appropriate selection of these parameters, a characteristic like the one depicted in Figure 6, can be much closer to the real characteristic than the characteristic of the type $\Delta U=A\cdot arctg(B\cdot j)$.

_{1}…f

_{n}of each node of the electric motor were collected, on the basis of which the calculation for each node k

_{1}…k

_{n}and frequency f

_{1}…f

_{n}, and subsequent processing of diagnostic information f/k

_{1n}/k, was carried out. Then the obtained signal is digitally displayed on the PC screen. The first block is the operator’s window, which displays a mimic diagram of the controlled components of the truck TEM with an indication of the current values of the measured parameters, provided by color status signaling (“yellow”-”red”) (Figure 9). In Figure 9 the yellow zone means the zone of acceptable operability of TEM nodes; the red zone means the emergency mode of equipment operation.

_{c}≥ 25 Hz the periodic nature of the frequency is distorted.

_{1}is the switching overvoltage vibration frequency;

- the presence of defects on the brushes is diagnosed at the following characteristic frequencies, which can be calculated using the following formula:

_{2}= f

_{sup}· k

_{br}·k

_{1}+ ƒ/k

_{d},

_{2}is the frequency of defects on the brushes;

_{sup}is the frequency of the mains supply;

_{br}is the number of brushes;

_{1}= 1…n are coefficients of the defect development stage;

_{d}is the number of defects on the brushes.

- the presence of bearing element damage is diagnosed at the following characteristic frequencies, reflecting the presence of faults:

_{3}= f

_{sup}· k

_{bear}·k

_{3}+ ƒ/k

_{sd},

_{3}is the frequency of bearing element damage;

_{bear}is the number of bearings;

_{sd}is the coefficient of the stage of development of the bearing defect.

- The presence of damage (breakage) on the manifold is diagnosed at the following characteristic frequencies:

_{4}= f

_{sup}· K · k

_{md}− ƒ·2p,

_{4}is the frequency of damage (breakage) on the manifold;

_{md}is the coefficient of the stage of development of the manifold defect.

- The commutator fight at the characteristic frequencies:

_{5}= ƒ·2p − f

_{c}·k

_{br},

_{5}is the frequency at the commutator runout;

_{c}is the characteristic frequency at the commutator.

- the presence of extreme wear of the brushes is diagnosed at the following characteristic frequencies:

_{6}= ƒ

_{anch}· k

_{2}− ƒ · k

_{brc},

_{6}is the frequency of the presence of the limit wear of the brushes;

_{anch}is the speed of the armature;

_{2}= 2 is the number of commutator plate soldering points to the armature winding;

_{brc}is the number of brushes in the cage.

## 3. Results

_{em}, and even a third (300 Hz), can appear.

_{0}= 1480 rpm.

- for the BCA operating under static loading and general uniform load, the calculation is carried out by reducing the brush height;
- for the BCA, for which the amount of information accumulated on the functional parameters is sufficient to extrapolate values for the subsequent period of operation, the calculation is carried out by changing these parameters to the limit values.

- Obtaining a set of vibration spectra from the vibration meter over the network;
- Accumulation of reference vibration spectra;
- Identifying the frequencies characteristic of different types of faults;
- Determination of characteristic faults in the electric motor units;
- Visualization of vibration spectra with a comparison of the benchmarks and results from the fault detection algorithms with an indication of characteristic frequencies.

## 4. Discussion

- -
- for BCAs operating under conditions of static loading and general uniform loading, the calculation is carried out on the basis of brush height reduction (Figure 14);
- -
- for BCA, for which the volume of information accumulated on the functional parameters is sufficient for the extrapolation of values for the subsequent period of operation, the calculation is carried out on change of these parameters to the limit values (Figure 15);
- -
- for bearings operating under conditions of constant rotation, the calculation is performed on the presence of defects and their development (Figure 9).

- The volume of accumulated data allows the application of statistical methods of evaluation of output parameters;
- They include forecasting of possible changes of output parameters in time using all types of available information;
- In the process of operation apply diagnostic methods to assess the causes affecting the output parameters;
- Optimize the output parameters of the units that determine their technical characteristics.

- -
- accuracy of TEM functioning;
- -
- diagnostic characteristics are improved twofold (Table 3);
- -
- kinematic characteristics (due to the modernization of the brush clamping unit, which gives uniform pressure over the entire brush plane);
- -
- economic performance is increased by 30%;
- -
- residual life of BCA is increased by 28–30%.

## 5. Conclusions

- The presented mathematical model of data processing, which allows us to estimate parameters such as time of wear and failure-free operation of the brush, determination of the dump truck mileage and the amount of brush wear, probability of failure-free operation of the brush, failure flow, residual life of the brush before complete wear and the rate of brush wear as a function of the time of operation, to form a conclusion about the serviceability of the brush on its actual technical condition.
- As a result of the analysis of data on the operation of traction electric motors in BelAZ dump trucks, a high percentage of failures related to brush wear was revealed. For each type and purpose of electric motors, and the specific conditions of its application, the optimal indicators of failure-free operation and durability were developed and economically justified. The prediction of the actual state of the parameters of the technical condition of electric motor gearboxes provides reliable diagnostics results.
- An increase in the reliability of diagnostic estimations is achieved through control of the actual modes of operation and monitoring of diagnostic parameters (vibration, wear height, runout, clamping force) characterizing the process of degradation of the actual technical condition of the BCA unit. A methodology for the monitoring of vibrations in the BCA nodes is developed.
- An effective and convenient method for diagnosing and monitoring vibrations in the brush–commutator units in DC motors is created, and the arsenal of methods within electric motors diagnostics is expanded. Thus, the accuracy of diagnostics is increased, the possibility of remote diagnostics is provided, the procedure of diagnostics is simplified (does not require disconnection of the electric motor), the possibility of full automation of the process of diagnostics is provided.
- Further introduction of a complex for forecasting the residual life of electric brushes on electric motors is supposed to be carried out not only on new dump trucks produced by JSC “BELAZ”, but also directly by operating enterprises modernizing their fleet of dump trucks, the electric drive of which failed for some reason or does not meet the technical characteristics.
- Output parameters after implementation of this monitoring system include the accuracy of TEM functioning; the fact that diagnostic characteristics are improved twofold; and the residual life of BCA is increased by 28–30%.

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 1.**Electrical scheme of the experimental setup: IM is a PN-45 type test generator with sectionalized DP winding; D is a drive motor with tachogenerator; PG generates additional poles’ make-up; AD is a drive motor of PG; OVPG and OVIM are windings for the independent excitation of PG and IM; R

_{H}is a loading rheostat for IM; SA2 is a polarity switch for DP make-up current; DI is a spark sensor connected to a device fora spark level estimation; PA1–PA6 are ammeters; PV1 is a voltmeter; K1–K3 are keys; SA1–SA2 are switches.

**Figure 2.**Probability density distribution of voltage drop probability for brushes: (

**a**)—EG-841; (

**b**)—EG-14; (

**c**)—EG-61A; Green line—composite detachable brushes; Red line—serial brushes.

**Figure 3.**VACs of monolithic (

**a**) and split (

**b**) brushes (at n = 500 min

^{−1}): 1 is an ascending branch, which is obtained by increasing the armature current at a fixed value of the number of turns of additional poles; 2 is a descending branch when the armature current decreases.

**Figure 4.**Schematic diagram of the switched circuit (

**a**) and its substitution diagram: (

**b**)—standard brush, (

**c**)—composite split brush.

**Figure 7.**Assembly of a system for monitoring the vibrations in brush–commutators: 1—DC motor; 2—vibrometer; 3—computer.

**Figure 10.**Frequency characteristics of the electric motor vibration spectrum: the orange line shows defects in the BCA; blue is a damage to the bearings.

**Figure 11.**Diagram of the vibration spectrum of developing defects on the TEM: the blue line shows defects in the BCA; orange line is a damage to the bearings.

**Figure 16.**Program to identify defects in TEM: 1—BCA, 2—a brush, 3—commutator runout, 4—reference TEM, 5—bearings.

**Table 1.**The frequencies and components in the spectrum of vibration as diagnostic signs of the presence of defects in a direct current electric motor.

Name of the Defect | Growth of Vibration Harmonics | Note |
---|---|---|

Static eccentricity of the gap, pole misalignment | f_{z}_{n}, f_{zν}R or T | Vibration growth during load changes |

Armature winding defects, commutator plate breakage | 2p f_{n} kf _{z}_{n} ± k f_{1}_{n} k f _{zν} ± 2p f_{n} R or T | - |

Switching defects | kf_{zν}R or T | Growth during load changes |

Worn brushes, commutator fight | k f_{1zν} ± k f_{2n} R or T | - |

Power supply voltage ripple | kf_{1}R or T | - |

_{1}—mains frequency, Hz; f

_{n}—armature frequency, Hz; f

_{zn}= f Z

_{nn}—tooth frequency, Hz; Z

_{n}—number of armature slots; f

_{zν}= f Z

_{n}

_{ν}—commutator frequency, Hz; Z

_{ν}—number of commutator plates; p—number of pole pairs, k, k

_{1}, k

_{2}—coefficients of defect development for bearings, commutator and brushes, respectively; R, T—radial and tangential directions of vibration excitation.

Motor Specifications | Values | Measurement Units |
---|---|---|

Power | 560 | kW |

Number of commutator plates | 1350 | Pcs |

Number of brushes | 12 | Pcs |

Number of pole pairs | 4 | Unit |

Network frequency | 50 | Hz |

Operating motor coefficient | 0.47 | no |

Permissible wear coefficient | 0.72 | no |

Motor speed | 1850 | rpm |

Voltage | 220 | V |

Number of bearings | 2 | Pcs |

Armature frequency | 25 | Hz |

**Table 3.**Changes in the area of the vibration spectrum of TEM nodes depending on the Spearman criterion and the correlation coefficient.

Unit to Be Diagnosed | Correlation Coefficient | Area of the Vibration Spectrum | Spearman Criterion |
---|---|---|---|

BCA damage | 0.18 | 37.36 | −0.01 |

Bearing damage | 0.25 | 12 | 0.22 |

Brush lapping | 0.11 | 8.03 | 0.09 |

commutator breakage | 0.07 | 5.96 | 0.15 |

Brush wear 6.56 mm | −0.14 | 0.71 | −0.09 |

Brush wear 8.76 mm | 1 | 6.35 | 1 |

Brush wear 13.9 mm | −0.01 | 6.52 | 0.16 |

Brush wear 15.8 mm | 0.09 | 7.66 | 0.04 |

Brush wear 18. 5 mm | −0.24 | 8.78 | −0.26 |

Brush wear 19.5 mm | −0.03 | 6.39 | 0.05 |

Brush wear 20.5 | 0.38 | 10.8 | 0.18 |

Brush wear 22.7 mm | −0.02 | 11.8 | 0.03 |

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## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Filina, O.A.; Martyushev, N.V.; Malozyomov, B.V.; Tynchenko, V.S.; Kukartsev, V.A.; Bashmur, K.A.; Pavlov, P.P.; Panfilova, T.A.
Increasing the Efficiency of Diagnostics in the Brush-Commutator Assembly of a Direct Current Electric Motor. *Energies* **2024**, *17*, 17.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en17010017

**AMA Style**

Filina OA, Martyushev NV, Malozyomov BV, Tynchenko VS, Kukartsev VA, Bashmur KA, Pavlov PP, Panfilova TA.
Increasing the Efficiency of Diagnostics in the Brush-Commutator Assembly of a Direct Current Electric Motor. *Energies*. 2024; 17(1):17.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en17010017

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Filina, Olga A., Nikita V. Martyushev, Boris V. Malozyomov, Vadim Sergeevich Tynchenko, Viktor Alekseevich Kukartsev, Kirill Aleksandrovich Bashmur, Pavel P. Pavlov, and Tatyana Aleksandrovna Panfilova.
2024. "Increasing the Efficiency of Diagnostics in the Brush-Commutator Assembly of a Direct Current Electric Motor" *Energies* 17, no. 1: 17.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en17010017