# Early Detection of Health Condition Degradation of Circuit Breaker Based on Electrical Quantity Monitoring

^{1}

^{2}

^{*}

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Characteristic Analysis of Circuit Breaker Operation State

_{set}of the surface is fixed [16]. However, due to the high temperature burning of the arc and friction contact, the critical breakdown field strength E

_{set}changes, and the abnormal mechanical transmission mechanism means that the contact spacing changes at the same time as the moving contact movement. Therefore, whether it is to characterize the electrical or mechanical life of the circuit breaker, it can be characterized by the critical breakdown field strength E

_{set}and the degree of contact spacing d change. Considering that the health status of the circuit breaker is a degradation process, when the cumulative wear of the contact and the abnormality of the operating mechanism cause the critical breakdown field strength E

_{set}and the contact spacing d to change to a certain extent, an alarm or shutdown should be issued. Therefore, the mathematical description of the operating state of the circuit breaker is given as follows:

_{0}and d

_{0}are the critical breakdown field strength and the corresponding contact spacing value in the ideal state, respectively. The breakdown field strength at the first breakdown is E

_{0}, and the corresponding contact spacing is d

_{0}. E

_{th}and d

_{th}are the alarm thresholds when the contact wears and the mechanical mechanism deteriorates to a certain extent.

_{set}and d values. However, due to the obvious uncertainty of the field enhancement factor β generated by the tip effect of fine particles on the electrode surface, the change of E

_{set}is random [17], so the change of E

_{set}is difficult to measure directly. To find a new characteristic quantity instead of E

_{set}to characterize the wear degree of circuit breaker contacts, the following analyzes the closing and arc development processes of the circuit breaker.

_{i}is the work function of the metal.

_{set}when the contact is broken, so the instantaneous value of the breakdown field strength E can be considered to replace E

_{set}. However, it can be seen from (3) that the instantaneous breakdown field strength E depends on the voltage difference u between the breaks and the contact spacing d. The bus-side voltage of the circuit breaker can be measured, but the change of the voltage on the opposite side depends on the residual charge of the connected capacitor bank after discharge, which cannot be measured in real time [20]. Therefore, it is difficult to accurately obtain the voltage value of the circuit breaker fracture in practice. In addition, considering factors such as cost and reliability, the circuit breaker is generally not equipped with contact displacement sensors, so the real-time change in contact spacing is not easy to know.

## 3. Selection of Circuit Breaker Characterization Quantity

#### Analysis of the Breakdown Current Characteristic

^{−5}cm. The value is related to two factors: gas molecule type (related to contact material) and gas pressure in the container. In the study, assuming that the pressure does not change, the most commonly used copper contact material for circuit breakers is selected, and the reference values given are applicable to the vast majority of cases. U

_{i}is the ionization potential of the gas, which is numerically equal to the ionization energy in units of eV, with a value of 15. These parameters are not affected by the type of circuit breaker but are only related to the motion properties of gas molecules.

_{0}, dn new electrons will be generated at the distance of dx after collision ionization. According to the definition of collision ionization coefficient:

_{0}is the saturation current caused by the ionization factor, about 10

^{−21}kA.

## 4. Method for Early Detection of Circuit Breaker Abnormal State

#### 4.1. Detection Principle and the Criterion

_{t}= X

_{t}

_{−1}+ ΔX

_{t}, where X

_{t}is a random walk process of unknown trend and ΔX

_{t}is an incremental process of random walk X

_{t}

_{−1}. The ADF test model is:

_{t}is the white noise with the mean-variance of σ

^{2}, γ is the parameter to be solved, and l is the lag order of X

_{t}.

_{0}: γ = 0, there is at least one unit root; suppose H

_{1}: γ < 0, there is no unit root. The test process can be completed by t-testing based on the critical value table [23].

_{1}and I

_{2}represent the breakdown of current values when the contact spacing changes and in the ideal state, respectively.

_{1}takes the breakdown field strength when the contact breakdown occurs after contact wear, and E

_{2}takes the breakdown field strength when the contact breakdowns occur between good contacts in an ideal state.

_{1}in (11) exceeds 5 kV/mm on the basis of the normal value E

_{2}, and the value of d/λe

^{(U}

^{i}

^{/}

^{λ}

^{Ε1}

^{)}is small and can be negligible. Then, I

_{1}/I

_{2}< 0.69 in (11) is obtained. Therefore, when the breakdown current ratio is less than 0.69 or greater than 1.45, it means that the contact spacing change exceeds 10 mm or the breakdown field strength deviation exceeds 5 kV/mm. At this time, it can be judged that the circuit breaker has a serious defect and should be immediately alarmed for maintenance.

#### 4.2. Detection Process

_{p}, collect, and monitor the instantaneous current value i when the switching state of the circuit breaker is 0 in real-time. When the continuous three i sampling values are greater than kI

_{p}, it is determined that the arc current occurs during the closing process of the circuit breaker, and we go to Step 2. Otherwise, continue to monitor the instantaneous value of the current in real-time; the value of k is less than 1, and in order to ensure sensitivity, the value of k = 1/3 is recommended.

_{p}is taken as the reference value, and the pre-breakdown peak can be reached in the subsequent fixed time window (generally 0.1 ms after arcing; the whole arcing process is generally 3–4 ms, so it is recommended that the time window be 1 ms). The current peak i

_{max}is recorded as the breakdown current value during the closing process of the circuit breaker, and the breakdown current value i

_{max}is used as an element of the continuous monitoring breakdown current sequence i(m), recorded as i(m = 1); then, the breakdown current value waiting for the next circuit breaker closing process is monitored in real-time, recorded as i(m = 2), until a complete breakdown current sequence i(m = M) is formed. In order to minimize the allowable error of the sample, it is recommended to generally take M > 10 and go to Step 3.

## 5. Simulation and Field Data Verification

#### 5.1. Simulation Verification

_{1}, K

_{2}, and K

_{3}denote isolation or grounding switches, CB signifies the circuit breaker, T

_{1}, T

_{2}, and T

_{3}denote current transformers, F

_{1}denotes the ground gap, and C

_{1}denotes the filter bank. The equivalent capacitance value is 5.6 uf, and L

_{1}represents the reactor, with an equivalent inductance value of 0.0032 H.

_{i}and Y

_{i}are the simulation sample data, X and Y are the sample mean, and n is the number of samples.

#### 5.1.1. Changing the Contact Spacing Distance

#### 5.1.2. Change the Breakdown Field Strength

#### 5.1.3. The Influence of Circuit Breaker Closing Phase Angle

#### 5.1.4. Influence of Circuit Breaker Closing Phase Angle Deviation

#### 5.2. Verification of Field-Measured Data

## 6. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Data Availability Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

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**Figure 2.**Three-dimensional characteristics and two-dimensional projection between breakdown current, instantaneous breakdown field strength, and contact spacing.

**Figure 7.**The ratio of two values of different times in measured breakdown current sequence of phases A and B, (

**a**) The ratio of two values of different times in the breakdown current sequence of phase on 17–30 August is compared. (

**b**) The ratio of different times in the breakdown current sequence of phase B on 17–28 August. (

**c**) The ratio of different times in the breakdown current sequence of phase B on 17–29 August.

Δd/mm | Breakdown Current Ratio |
---|---|

1 | 1.04 |

5 | 1.18 |

10 | 1.45 |

20 | 1.75 |

Parameter | Unit | Parameter Value | |
---|---|---|---|

Rated Voltage | kV | 550 | |

Rated Current | A | 4000, 5000 | |

Rated frequency | Hz | 50 | |

Rated short-circuit breaking current | Short-circuit current | kA | 50, 63 |

DC component percentage | - | 60% | |

Rated short-time withstand current (3 s) | kA | 63 (50) | |

Rated peak withstand current | kA | 125, 160 |

Contact Spacing d/mm | Breakdown Current Value i/kA |
---|---|

5 | 0.42 |

10 | 0.58 |

20 | 0.86 |

Breakdown Time t/s | Voltage Difference between Fractures △u/kV | Field Strength between Fractures E-kV/mm | Breakdown Current Value i/kA |
---|---|---|---|

0.1284 | 27.95 | 8.2 | 1.61 |

0.1285 | 35.63 | 9 | 1.70 |

0.1286 | 45.01 | 9.8 | 1.83 |

Date | A Phase Breakdown Current Value i _{a}/kA | B Phase Breakdown Current Value i _{b}/kA |
---|---|---|

17 August | 7.24 | 2.55 |

18 August | 5.96 | 2.74 |

24 August | 7.43 | 2.33 |

26 August | 8.06 | 2.44 |

27 August | 7.52 | 2.97 |

28 August | 6.98 | 3.36 |

29 August | 6.65 | 4.78 |

30 August | 7.54 | 0 |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Li, L.; Wang, B.; Liu, Y.; Yu, H.; Zhang, S.; Huang, M.
Early Detection of Health Condition Degradation of Circuit Breaker Based on Electrical Quantity Monitoring. *Energies* **2023**, *16*, 5581.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en16145581

**AMA Style**

Li L, Wang B, Liu Y, Yu H, Zhang S, Huang M.
Early Detection of Health Condition Degradation of Circuit Breaker Based on Electrical Quantity Monitoring. *Energies*. 2023; 16(14):5581.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en16145581

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Li, Lisheng, Bin Wang, Yang Liu, Haidong Yu, Shidong Zhang, and Min Huang.
2023. "Early Detection of Health Condition Degradation of Circuit Breaker Based on Electrical Quantity Monitoring" *Energies* 16, no. 14: 5581.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en16145581