Pre-Conceptual Design of the Research High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor TeResa for Non-Electrical Applications
- The core configuration being able to perform economically in fuel cycle length of around 3 years with sensible uniform radial power distribution;
- Low estimations of normal operational and accidental releases to the environment kept within the legal limits;
- A Core thermal-hydraulic design able to maintain the fuel temperature below 1600 °C during the most challenging selected DBA event sequences;
- An efficient pre-concept of the decay heat removal system able to perform in various operating conditions.
2. GOSPOSTRATEG-HTR Structure and Objectives
- Development of the novel 40 MWth research HTGR pre-conceptual design.
- Development of the analysis for the radioactive substance distribution in the HTGR circulation loop and radiation hazards under normal operating conditions. Core releases and effects of those hypothetical releases.
- Analysis of built-in safety features, safety systems, requirements for their operation in emergency situations and their classification and qualification for emergency conditions.
- Identification of initiating events and accident scenarios.
- Determination of the distribution and possible propagation processes of fission products in the HTGR reactor and their releases outside the HTGR reactor in situations of DBAs and severe accidents.
- Conclusions regarding the requirements for the barriers in the HTGR reactor as well as the restricted zone and proposals for appropriate changes in legal regulations.
3. TeResa Reactor Design Pre-Concept and Calculations
3.1. Research Reactor Design Philosophy
3.2. Current Safety Evaluation Status
3.3. Exemple Results of TeResa Analysis
4. Final Remarks
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Phase A—Research Phase (1 February 2019–31 July 2020)|
|WP Number||Work Package Title||Involved Institutions|
|1||Development of methods for diagnostics of structural materials in the HTR construction||NCBJ|
|2||Development of methods for testing structural materials in a nuclear reactor, and equipment for the execution of tests in the core.||NCBJ|
|3||Research and analysis of selected chemical aspects of the production and use of TRISO fuel in the HTR nuclear reactor.||IChTJ|
|4||Comprehensive analysis of the necessary changes to the legal environment and the potential benefits of social, economic and industrial units for the Polish economy.||MKiŚ, NCBJ|
|Phase B—Implementation Phase (1 August 2020–31 March 2022)|
|WP Number||Work Package Title||Involved Institutions|
|5||Preparation-licensing process (certification) of HTGRs with the example of a research reactor.||NCBJ, MKiŚ, IChTJ|
|6||Preparation draft of legal regulations for the HTR investments implementation and developing a strategy in the social, economic and industrial aspects of the project.||NCBJ, MKiŚ, IChTJ|
|7||Piloting test procedures for the use of construction materials for the HTR design, including tests in the MARIA reactor core.||NCBJ|
|8||Preparation of technical and economic assumptions for the construction of a fuel production unit for high-temperature reactors.||IChTJ|
|Reactor thermal output (gross thermal power)||MWth||40|
|HTGR type||-||prismatic, block-type|
|Graphite block type||-||similar to GEMINI+|
|Graphite block height||cm||80|
|Graphite block hexagon flat-to-flat distance||cm||36|
|Graphite block material (fuel and reflector blocks)||-||NBG-17|
|Fuel||-||TRISO, 12% enriched UO2|
|Active core height||cm||480|
|Active core effective diameter||cm||212|
|RPV outer radius||cm||224.4|
|Coolant flow direction||-||downward flow pattern|
|Helium mass flow rate (at 100% power)||kg/s||18.14|
|Primary system pressure||MPa||6.0|
|Reactor vessel inlet coolant temperature||°C||325|
|Reactor vessel outlet coolant temperature||°C||750|
|Number of cooling loops||-||1|
|Steam generator type||once-through, helically coiled bundles|
|Secondary side coolant||-||water|
|Main steam pressure (at Steam Generator (SG) outlet)||MPa||13.8|
|Main steam temperature (at SG outlet)||°C||540|
|Main steam mass flow rate (at 100% power)||kg/s||15.9|
|Feed water pressure (at SG inlet)||MPa||13.97|
|Feed water inlet temperature (at SG inlet)||°C||210|
|Feed water mass flow rate (at 100% power)||kg/s||15.9|
|Fuel kernel||uranium dioxide||10.65||250|
|Buffer layer||porous carbon||1.05||345|
|Inner PyC layer||pyrolytic carbon||1.90||385|
|SiC layer||silicon carbide||3.18||420|
|Outer PyC layer||pyrolytic carbon||1.90||460|
|Field of Study||Code Name||Outline|
|Neutronics||Serpent 2 ||Serpent is a continuous-energy multi-purpose three-dimensional Monte Carlo particle transport code. It is in development at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland since 2004.|
|MVP ||MVP (JAEA, Japan) is a general-purpose Monte Carlo code that performs neutron and photon three-dimensional transport calculations using the continuous energy method.|
|MCB ||MCB—Monte Carlo continuous energy burnup code is a general-purpose code used to calculate a nuclide density time evolution, including burnup and decay. Internally, MCB comprises MCNP code, which is used for transport calculations, and is coupled with thermal-hydraulic code POKE (thermohydraulic software)( Gulf General Atomic Incorporated, USA).|
|Thermal hydraulics||MELCOR 2.2 ||MELCOR is a fully integrated, engineering-level computer code developed by Sandia National Laboratories for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, that models the progression of severe accidents in nuclear power plants.|
|CATHARE2 ||CATHARE (Code for Analysis of Thermal hydraulics during an Accident of Reactor and safety Evaluation) is a two-phase thermal-hydraulic system used in pressurized water reactor safety analyses, the verification post-accidental operating procedures, and in research and development.|
|ANSYS Fluent 2020 R1 ||Ansys FLUENT software contains the broad physical modeling capabilities needed to model flow, turbulence, heat transfer, and reactions for industrial applications.|
|Isotope||Ai,TOT [Bq]||Ai,TeResa,f [Bq/y]|
|H-3||2.88× 1012||4.09× 108|
|Kr-83m||2.46× 1016||5.32× 1010|
|Kr-85||1.48× 1015||1.27× 106|
|Kr-85m||6.12× 1016||1.32× 1011|
|Kr-87||1.12× 1017||2.42× 1011|
|Kr-88||1.50× 1017||3.23× 1011|
|Xe-131m||1.86× 1015||4.03× 109|
|Xe-133||3.70× 1017||7.98× 1011|
|Xe-133m||1.11× 1016||2.39× 1010|
|Xe-135||7.73× 1016||1.68× 1011|
|Xe-135m||7.47× 1016||1.61× 1011|
|I-131||1.71× 1017||1.47× 108|
|I-132||2.51× 1017||2.17× 108|
|I-133||3.68× 1017||3.17× 108|
|I-134||4.18× 1017||3.63× 108|
|I-135||3.46× 1017||2.99× 108|
|Rb-88||1.51× 1017||3.27× 108|
|Sr-89||2.10× 1017||9.06× 104|
|Sr-90||9.84× 1015||4.25× 103|
|Cs-134||1.01× 1016||4.36× 102|
|Cs-137||1.17× 1016||5.05× 102|
|Ag-110m||1.52× 1014||6.55× 105|
|Parameters||Design Value||Simulation MELCOR 2.2||Relative Error|
|Reactor power (MWth)||40||40||0.000%|
|Helium pressure of primary loop (MPa)||6||6||0.000%|
|Helium mass flow rate (kg/s)||18.14368||18.1437||0.000%|
|Helium RPV Inlet temperature (K)||598||598||0.000%|
|Helium RPV Outlet temperature (K)||1023||1015||−0.782%|
|Main feed-water temperature (K)||483||482.5||0.000%|
|Main steam temperature (K)||813||794||−3.519%|
|Main steam pressure (MPa)||13.8||13.8||0.000%|
|Feed-water flow rate for steam generator (kg/s)||15.9||15.95||0.314%|
|Accidental Scenario||Maximum Fuel|
|Active Core Axial|
Position from the Bottom
|Active Core Radial|
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Skrzypek, E.; Muszyński, D.; Skrzypek, M.; Darnowski, P.; Malesa, J.; Boettcher, A.; Dąbrowski, M.P. Pre-Conceptual Design of the Research High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor TeResa for Non-Electrical Applications. Energies 2022, 15, 2084. https://doi.org/10.3390/en15062084
Skrzypek E, Muszyński D, Skrzypek M, Darnowski P, Malesa J, Boettcher A, Dąbrowski MP. Pre-Conceptual Design of the Research High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor TeResa for Non-Electrical Applications. Energies. 2022; 15(6):2084. https://doi.org/10.3390/en15062084Chicago/Turabian Style
Skrzypek, Eleonora, Dominik Muszyński, Maciej Skrzypek, Piotr Darnowski, Janusz Malesa, Agnieszka Boettcher, and Mariusz P. Dąbrowski. 2022. "Pre-Conceptual Design of the Research High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor TeResa for Non-Electrical Applications" Energies 15, no. 6: 2084. https://doi.org/10.3390/en15062084