A Review of Recent Best Practices in the Development of Real-Time Power System Simulators from a Simulator Manufacturer’s Perspective
- The development of a universal converter model to overcome modeling challenges associated with real-time power electronics simulation and the HIL testing of converter controls;
- the addition of new features related to IEC 61850 Edition 2.0/2.1 and other developments related to the simulation and HIL testing of substation automation systems, and;
- graphical user interface updates that significantly improve the user experience.
2. Advances and Best Practices in Real-Time Simulation
2.1. Power Electronics Modelling and Testing
2.1.1. Hardware Integration
2.1.2. Line-Commutated Converter Simulation
2.1.3. Voltage-Source Converter Simulation via L/C Switching Models and Decoupled Resistively-Switched Models
- The L/C switching method causes artificial switching losses associated with abruptly switching from a small inductor (representing the ON state) to a small capacitor (representing the OFF state) model. Losses increase with switching frequency until they are generally deemed excessive in the 3–5 kHz range ;
- The L/C representation can introduce current and voltage oscillation that appears as noise on the output waveforms;
- The impedance of the switch is frequency-dependent, which limits its operational bandwidth. This places a limitation on the timestep in order to ensure that the ON/OFF impedance ratio is sufficiently large.
- There was potential for the interface transmission line to contribute artificial series inductance and shunt capacitance to the system;
- Due to memory limitations, it was only possible to represent a limited number of switches this way.
2.1.4. Improved Multi-Rate Simulation Environment and Resistively-Switched Models
2.1.5. Average Value Models
2.1.6. A Novel Universal Converter Model
- The converter model receives a sin wave as a modulation waveform, and the result is similar to that of an average value model, with some performance improvements. This option is available for a wide range of timesteps, in the range of 1–50 μs.
- The converter model reads firing pulses (from an external controller or firing pulse generator within the real-time simulation) once per timestep, and the result is similar to the aforementioned resistively-switched converter models, covering switching frequencies in the 30–50 kHz range. This option is only available for subnetworks with a timestep of less than 10 μs.
- The “Improved Firing” algorithm has been developed to enhance the performance of the UCM for a wide range of timesteps. In this case, the converter model captures firing pulses at a very high resolution and calculates the portion of each timestep that the valve’s switches should be ON. This effectively allows for multiple ON/OFF transitions within each timestep. This novel option increases the range of switching frequencies that can be covered by the converter model; in subnetworks with a timestep of less than 10 μs, frequencies of up to 150 kHz can be tested. Perhaps more significantly, this feature can also be used in standard simulations with a timestep of 30–50 μs. It allows for frequencies of 2–3 kHz to be represented in detail without requiring a smaller timestep. The computational burden is therefore significantly reduced compared to previous models; several detailed converted models can be placed in simulations running on a single core.
- It offers a non-decoupled, resistively-switched converter modeling option.
- It can be run with the typical EMT simulation timestep of 30–50 μs. This allows for many detailed converter models to be allocated to a smaller simulation hardware configuration than was previously possible (i.e., fewer licensed cores). The UCM, therefore, benefits users not only with its improved numerical stability and accuracy over a greater range of switching frequencies but also with its hardware efficiency .
- Switching frequencies of up to 150 kHz can be accurately tested without requiring timesteps in the nanosecond range.
- Switching frequencies of 2–3 kHz can be accurately tested with timesteps in the 30–50 μs range.
2.2. IEC 61850 Modelling, Configuration, and Testing
2.2.1. Sampled Values Manipulation
- Support for a wide range of SV sampling rates, including those defined in IEC 61869-9 and several retained for IEC 61850-9-2-LE backward compatibility . This includes a sampling rate of 96 kHz as per IEC 61869-9, the preferred sampling rate for high-bandwidth DC instrument transformer applications.
- Support for an SV sampling rate of 250 kHz. This capability was developed based on the requirements of RTDS Simulator users with ultra-high-bandwidth applications such as HVDC control and protection testing .
- Support for SV stream and data manipulation options, which are summarized below and described in additional detail in .
- VLAN Priority;
- VLAN ID;
- Application ID;
- Length of SV packet;
- Reserved 1;
- Reserved 2;
- Number of ASDU;
- Configuration revision;
- Sample count;
- Destination MAC address;
- Source MAC address;
- Stream identification;
- Stop/resume: Simulates the loss of packets on the network by stopping and re-starting SV publishing from the operator’s console.
- Duplicate: Simulates a problematic network topology by duplicating SV packets.
- Swap: Simulates the non-sequential arrival of packets, due to problematic network routing, by swapping the order of two SV packets.
- Delay: Simulate undesirable network latency by delaying SV packets.
- Jitter: Simulate variable latency by adding positive/negative jitter to the stream. Jitter can be controlled with a resolution of 10 ns.
2.2.2. Support for PTP Synchronization Profiles
2.2.3. Capability Advancements and Support for IEC 61850-8-1 Edition 2.0/2.1
2.2.4. An Improved IED Configuration Tool
- Configure IEDs simulated by GSEv7 components.
- Carry out data binding (mapping input and output data to signals in the simulation).
- Generate a Configured IED Description (CID) files for every GSEv7 component, which contains Substation Configuration Language (SCL) files for each simulated IED within it.
- Import SCL files from external devices connected to the real-time simulator.
2.3. Graphical User Interface Improvements
2.3.2. Look and Feel
2.3.3. Automated Component Naming
2.3.4. Buswork Tool
- A novel universal converter model for power electronics modeling that uses a proprietary algorithm to achieve high-resolution firing without requiring a reduced simulation timestep. The model overcomes several challenges associated with real-time power electronics modeling, including fictitious power losses, numerical stability issues due to decoupling/delay, and the typically high computational burden of detailed switching models.
- Enhancements to substation automation simulation facilities which reflect new features/requirements of IEC 61850 Edition 2.0/2.1 and other industry developments. This includes improved GOOSE Messaging capabilities, an IED Configuration Tool for enhanced configuration of GOOSE Messaging streams, Sampled Values manipulation options, and support for PTP synchronization profiles.
- An updated graphical user interface (GUI) with improved speed, look, and feel. The GUI includes new features such as automated component naming and an efficient buswork drawing tool.
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|PWM Switching Frequency (Hz)||Power Losses for Resistively-Switched Model (via Predictive Switching)||Power Losses for L/C ADC Model 1|
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Sidwall, K.; Forsyth, P. A Review of Recent Best Practices in the Development of Real-Time Power System Simulators from a Simulator Manufacturer’s Perspective. Energies 2022, 15, 1111. https://doi.org/10.3390/en15031111
Sidwall K, Forsyth P. A Review of Recent Best Practices in the Development of Real-Time Power System Simulators from a Simulator Manufacturer’s Perspective. Energies. 2022; 15(3):1111. https://doi.org/10.3390/en15031111Chicago/Turabian Style
Sidwall, Kati, and Paul Forsyth. 2022. "A Review of Recent Best Practices in the Development of Real-Time Power System Simulators from a Simulator Manufacturer’s Perspective" Energies 15, no. 3: 1111. https://doi.org/10.3390/en15031111