# Comparative Reliability Assessment of Hybrid Si/SiC and Conventional Si Power Module Based PV Inverter Considering Mission Profile of India and Denmark Locations

^{1}

^{2}

^{3}

^{4}

^{*}

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

_{j}balance and power loss minimization considering hybrid Si/SiC power modules. Related work is also presented in [18,19,20,21,22]. In [23], the authors presented the experimental validation of hybrid supercapacitors and battery-based renewable energy systems. Standalone inverter experimental validation for hybrid PV and wind systems is presented in [24]. Still, there is a gap in the reliability analysis of hybrid Si/SiC power modules needed to design a highly reliable inverter.

## 2. Reliability Analysis of Hybrid Si/SiC Module Based PV Inverter

_{j}) needs to be calculated. Nevertheless, T

_{j}cannot be measured directly from the hybrid Si/SiC power module; hence, an indirect method, i.e., the foster electro-thermal model (FETM), is used in this paper as shown in Figure 3.

_{j}is calculated by Equation (1) below.

_{th(j−c)}is the impedance between the junction and the case, P

_{T}is the total loss of power, and T

_{c}is the temperature of the case.

_{j}, N

_{i}, T

_{jm}, and ΔT

_{j}, which are obtained using the rainflow-counting algorithm [27]. The lifetime can be calculated using Miner’s rule, as shown in Equation (2).

_{i}(t) is the individual component reliability.

_{10}lifetime can be calculated using Equation (6):

## 3. Results and Discussions

- Reliability-oriented performance evaluation of a PV inverter at the India location;
- Reliability-oriented performance evaluation of a PV inverter at the Denmark location.

#### 3.1. Reliability-Oriented Performance Evaluation of a PV Inverter at the India Location

#### 3.1.1. Calculation of T_{j}

_{j}of the proposed hybrid Si/SiC power module and conventional Si power module are calculated for yearly MP using FETM, as shown in Figure 6. From Figure 6, it is observed that overall, T

_{j}is decreased with the proposed hybrid Si/SiC power module. The maximum and minimum T

_{j}values recorded for the proposed hybrid Si/SiC power module are 99.33 °C and 11.39 °C, respectively. Similarly, the conventional Si power module values are 103.88 °C and 11.41 °C, respectively.

#### 3.1.2. Rainflow-Counting Algorithm

_{j}variations for the proposed hybrid Si/SiC power module and conventional Si power module are analyzed using the RF algorithm. The parameters N

_{i}, T

_{jm}, and ΔT

_{j}, from T

_{j}are obtained using the rainflow-counting algorithm.

_{j}variations histogram, i.e., N

_{i}, T

_{jm}, and ΔT for a proposed hybrid Si/SiC power module and conventional Si power module, are plotted in Figure 7. The T

_{jm}, i.e., 55.66 °C, is recorded for a hybrid Si/SiC power module. Similarly, 53.9 °C is recorded for a conventional Si power module, as shown in Figure 8.

_{jm}of 1.76 °C is lower with the proposed hybrid Si/SiC power module.

#### 3.1.3. MCS-Based B_{10} Lifetime Evaluation

_{10}lifetime is calculated using Equation (6) as shown in Figure 10. For a conventional Si-IGBT, a scale parameter, ∝, is 49.72 and a shape parameter, γ, is 5.74. Similarly, for a hybrid Si/SiC-IGBT scale parameter, a scale parameter, ∝, is 63.15, and a shape parameter, γ, is 5.65.

_{10}lifetime at the Indian location for the proposed hybrid Si/SiC power module at CL and SL is 42 and 34 years, respectively. Similarly, the CL and SL of conventional Si power modules are 34 and 26 years old, respectively. Reliability improvements of 8 years at both CL and SL were achieved with the proposed Si/SiC power module.

#### 3.2. Reliability-Oriented Performance Evaluation of PV Inverter at the Denmark Location

#### 3.2.1. Calculation of T_{j}

_{j}of the proposed hybrid Si/SiC power module and conventional Si power module are calculated for the yearly MP using FETM as shown in Figure 11. From the figure, it is observed that overall, T

_{j}is decreased with the proposed hybrid Si/SiC power module. The maximum and minimum Tj values measured for the proposed hybrid Si/SiC power module are 90.65 °C and −17.76 °C, respectively, while the conventional Si power module measures 96.37 °C and 17.83 °C.

#### 3.2.2. Rainflow-Counting Algorithm

_{j}variations for the proposed hybrid Si/SiC power module and conventional Si power module are analyzed using the RF algorithm. The parameters N

_{i}, T

_{jm}, and ΔT

_{j}, from T

_{j}are obtained using a rainflow-counting algorithm.

_{j}variations histogram, i.e., N

_{i}, T

_{jm}, and ΔT for the proposed hybrid Si/SiC power module and conventional Si power module, are plotted in Figure 12. The T

_{jm}, i.e., 16.37 °C, is recorded for the hybrid Si/SiC power module; similarly, 15.91 °C is recorded for the conventional Si power module, as shown in Figure 13.

_{jm}of 0.46 °C is lower with the proposed hybrid Si/SiC power module.

#### 3.2.3. MCS Based B10 Lifetime Evaluation

_{10}lifetime at the Denmark location for the proposed hybrid Si/SiC power module at the CL and the SL is 93 and 74 years, respectively. Similarly, the CL and SL of conventional Si power modules are 67 and 53 years old, respectively. Reliability improvements of 26 years at the CL and 21 years at the SL were achieved with the proposed Si/SiC power module.

#### 3.3. B_{10} Lifetime Comparison

_{10}lifetime is calculated in both cases, and comparative analyses at the CL and SL are shown in Figure 16. At both locations, the B

_{10}lifetime of the PV inverter records the highest value with the proposed hybrid Si/SiC power module in comparison with a conventional Si power module, and hence the reliability performance of a PV inverter is improved. A reliability improvement of 8 years at the CL and the SL was achieved at the Indian location. Similarly, a reliability improvement of 26 years at the CL and 21 years at the SL was achieved with the proposed Si/SiC power module. The cost comparison of conventional Si-IGBT and hybrid Si/SiC-IGBT is presented in Table 2.

## 4. Conclusions

_{j}at both locations is calculated with the proposed hybrid Si/SiC power module, and its effectiveness is evaluated by comparing it with the conventional Si power module. T

_{j}variations are analyzed using a rainflow-counting algorithm. A hybrid Si/SiC power module records a lower mean T

_{j}than a conventional Si power module. The MC simulation is used to generate 10,000 populations with 5% variation, and LT is calculated at each sample. All samples are fitted into the Weibull distribution. B10 lifetime is calculated at both locations, proposed hybrid Si/SiC power module records the highest value in comparison with the conventional Si power module, and hence the reliability performance of the PV inverter is improved. The current limitation and future step of this work is experimental validation.

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

## Abbreviations and Nomenclature

PV | Photo Voltaic |

Si | Silicon |

SiC | Silicon Carbide |

IGBT | Insulated gate bipolar transistor |

MP | Mission Profile |

AT | Ambient Temperature |

SI | Solar Irradiance |

T_{j} | Junction Temperature |

FETM | Foster Electro-Thermal Model |

Z_{th(j−c)} | Impedance between junction and case |

P_{T} | Total losses of power |

T_{c} | Temperature of case |

N_{i} | No. of Cycles |

T_{jm} | Mean Junction Temperature |

ΔT_{j} | Cycle Amplitude |

MCS | Monte Carlo Simulation |

CL | Component Level |

SL | System Level |

RF | Rain Flow |

## References

- Busca, C.; Teodorescu, R.; Blaabjerg, F.; Munk-Nielsen, S.; Helle, L.; Abeyasekera, T.; Rodríguez, P. An overview of the reliability prediction related aspects of high power IGBTs in wind power applications. Microelectron. Reliab.
**2011**, 51, 1903–1907. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version] - Yang, S.; Bryant, A.; Mawby, P.; Xiang, D.; Ran, L.; Tavner, P. An industry-based survey of reliability in power electronic converters. IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl.
**2011**, 47, 1441–1451. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Wang, H.; Liserre, M.; Blaabjerg, F.; de Place Rimmen, P.; Jacobsen, J.B.; Kvisgaard, T.; Landkildehus, J. Transitioning to physics-of-failure as a reliability driver in power electronics. IEEE J. Emerg. Sel. Top. Power Electron.
**2014**, 2, 97–114. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Amber, L.; Haddad, K. Hybrid Si IGBT-SiC Schottky diode modules for medium to high power applications. In Proceedings of the IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition (APEC), Tampa, FL, USA, 26–30 March 2017; pp. 3027–3032. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Feng, Z.; Zhang, X.; Wang, J.; Yu, S. A high-efficiency three-level ANPC inverter based on hybrid SiC and Si devices. Energies
**2020**, 13, 1159. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version] - Zhang, D.; He, J.; Pan, D. A Megawatt-Scale Medium-Voltage High-Efficiency High Power Density ‘SiC + Si’ Hybrid Three-Level Propulsion Systems. IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl.
**2019**, 55, 5971–5980. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Peng, Z.; Wang, J.; Liu, Z.; Li, Z.; Wang, D.; Dai, Y.; Zeng, G.; Shen, Z.J. Adaptive Gate Delay-Time Control of Si/SiC Hybrid Switch for Efficiency Improvement in Inverters. IEEE Trans. Power Electron.
**2021**, 36, 3437–3449. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Ning, P.; Li, L.; Wen, X.; Cao, H. A hybrid Si IGBT and SiC MOSFET module development. CES Trans. Electr. Mach. Syst.
**2020**, 1, 360–366. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Mishima, T. A Time-Sharing Current-Fed ZCS High-Frequency Inverter-Based Resonant DC-DC Converter with Si-IGBT/SiC-SBD Hybrid Module for Inductive Power Transfer Applications. IEEE J. Emerg. Sel. Top. Power Electron.
**2020**, 8, 506–516. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version] - Han, D.; Noppakunkajorn, J.; Sarlioglu, B. Comprehensive efficiency, weight, and volume comparison of SiC- and Si-based bidirectional dc-dc converters for hybrid electric vehicles. IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol.
**2014**, 63, 3001–3010. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Saito, K.; Miyoshi, T.; Kawase, D.; Hayakawa, S.; Masuda, T.; Sasajima, Y. Simplified Model Analysis of Self-Excited Oscillation and Its Suppression in a High-Voltage Common Package for Si-IGBT and SiC-MOS. IEEE Trans. Electron Devices
**2018**, 65, 1063–1071. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Peng, Z.; Wang, J.; Liu, Z.; Li, Z.; Dai, Y.; Zeng, G.; Shen, Z.J. A Variable-frequency current-dependent switching strategy to improve tradeoff between efficiency and sic mosfet overcurrent stress in si/sic-hybrid-switch-based inverters. IEEE Trans. Power Electron.
**2021**, 36, 4877–4886. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Li, Z.; Wang, J.; Deng, L.; He, Z.; Yang, X.; Ji, B.; Shen, Z.J. Active Gate Delay Time Control of Si/SiC Hybrid Switch for Tj Balance over a Wide Power Range. IEEE Trans. Power Electron.
**2020**, 35, 5354–5365. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version] - Guan, Q.X.; Li, C.; Zhang, Y.; Wang, S.; Xu, D.D.; Li, W.; Ma, H. An Extremely High Efficient Three-Level Active Neutral-Point-Clamped Converter Comprising SiC and Si Hybrid Power Stages. IEEE Trans. Power Electron.
**2018**, 33, 8341–8352. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Li, D.; Li, X.; Chang, G.; Qi, F.; Packwood, M.; Pottage, D.; Wang, Y.; Luo, H.; Dai, X.; Liu, G. Characterization of a 3.3-kV Si-SiC Hybrid Power Module in Half-Bridge Topology for Traction Inverter Application. IEEE Trans. Power Electron.
**2020**, 35, 13429–13440. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Feng, Z.; Zhang, X.; Yu, S.; Zhuang, J. Comparative Study of 2Si&C4Si Hybrid Configuration Schemes in ANPC Inverter. IEEE Access
**2020**, 8, 33934–33943. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Wang, J.; Li, Z.; Jiang, X.; Zeng, C.; Shen, Z.J. Gate Control Optimization of Si/SiC Hybrid Switch for Tj Balance and Power Loss Reduction. IEEE Trans. Power Electron.
**2019**, 34, 1744–1754. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Li, Z.; Wang, J.; He, Z.; Yu, J.; Dai, Y.; Shen, Z.J. Performance Comparison of Two Hybrid Si/SiC Device Concepts. IEEE J. Emerg. Sel. Top. Power Electron.
**2020**, 8, 42–53. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Li, Z.; Wang, J.; Ji, B.; Shen, Z.J. Power loss model and device sizing optimization of Si/SiC hybrid switches. IEEE Trans. Power Electron.
**2020**, 35, 8512–8523. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Ning, P.; Yuan, T.; Kang, Y.; Han, C.; Li, L. Review of Si IGBT and SiC MOSFET based on hybrid switch. Chin. J. Electr. Eng.
**2019**, 5, 20–29. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Song, X.; Zhang, L.; Huang, A.Q. Three-Terminal Si/SiC Hybrid Switch. IEEE Trans. Power Electron.
**2020**, 35, 8867–8871. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Noppakunkajorn, J.; Han, D.; Sarlioglu, B. Analysis of High-Speed PCB with SiC Devices by Investigating Turn-Off Overvoltage and Interconnection Inductance Influence. IEEE Trans. Transp. Electrif.
**2015**, 1, 118–125. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Naderi, E.; Bibek, K.C.; Ansari, M.; Asrari, A. Experimental Validation of a Hybrid Storage Framework to Cope With Fluctuating Power of Hybrid Renewable Energy-Based Systems. IEEE Trans. Energy Convers.
**2021**, 36, 1991–2001. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Naderi, E.; Asrari, A. Experimental Validation of Grid-Tied and Standalone Inverters on a Lab-scale Wind-PV Microgrid. In Proceedings of the 2021 IEEE International Power and Renewable Energy Conference (IPRECON), Kollam, India, 24–26 September 2021; pp. 1–6. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Kshatri, S.S.; Dhillon, J.; Mishra, S. Reliability evaluation of grid connected pv inverter considering panel degradation rate and oversizing at Indian location. J. Crit. Rev.
**2020**, 7, 1710–1714. [Google Scholar] - Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO). MERRA-2 tavg1_2d_slv_Nx: 2d,1-Hourly,Time-Averaged,Single-Level,Assimilation,Single-Level Diagnostics V5.12.4, Greenbelt, MD, USA, Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC). 2015. Available online: https://www.soda-pro.com/web-services/meteo-data/merra (accessed on 1 November 2018).
- Gatla, R.K.; Chen, W.; Zhu, G.; Wang, J.V.; Kshatri, S.S. Lifetime comparison of IGBT modules in Grid-connected Multilevel PV inverters Considering MP. In Proceedings of the 2019 10th International Conference on Power Electronics and ECCE Asia (ICPE 2019—ECCE Asia), Busan, Republic of Korea, 27–30 May 2019. [Google Scholar]
- Bayerer, R.; Herrmann, T.; Licht, T.; Lutz, J.; Feller, M. Model for power cycling lifetime of IGBT Modules? Various factors influencing lifetime. In Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Integrated Power Electronics Systems, Nuremberg, Germany, 11–13 March 2008. [Google Scholar]

Name | Number |
---|---|

Factor (A) | 9.340 × 10^{14} |

β_{1} | −4.42 |

β_{2} | 1285.00 |

β_{3} | −0.46 |

β_{4} | −0.72 |

β_{5} | −0.76 |

β_{6} | −0.50 |

Foot Bond Current (I) | 3–23 A |

Class of Voltage (V) | 6–33 V |

Diameter | 75–500 µm |

Conventional Si-IGBT (In INR) | Hybrid Si/SiC-IGBT (In INR) |
---|---|

237.02 | 1095.28 |

Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. |

© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Kshatri, S.S.; Dhillon, J.; Mishra, S.; Haghighi, A.T.; Hunt, J.D.; Patro, E.R.
Comparative Reliability Assessment of Hybrid Si/SiC and Conventional Si Power Module Based PV Inverter Considering Mission Profile of India and Denmark Locations. *Energies* **2022**, *15*, 8612.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en15228612

**AMA Style**

Kshatri SS, Dhillon J, Mishra S, Haghighi AT, Hunt JD, Patro ER.
Comparative Reliability Assessment of Hybrid Si/SiC and Conventional Si Power Module Based PV Inverter Considering Mission Profile of India and Denmark Locations. *Energies*. 2022; 15(22):8612.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en15228612

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Kshatri, Sainadh Singh, Javed Dhillon, Sachin Mishra, Ali Torabi Haghighi, Julian David Hunt, and Epari Ritesh Patro.
2022. "Comparative Reliability Assessment of Hybrid Si/SiC and Conventional Si Power Module Based PV Inverter Considering Mission Profile of India and Denmark Locations" *Energies* 15, no. 22: 8612.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en15228612