# Review of Research on the Three-Dimensional Transition Process of Large-Scale Low-Lift Pump

^{1}

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Research Status of Transition Process of Low-Head Pumping Station

#### 2.1. Start-up Process Research

#### 2.2. Shutdown Process Research

#### 2.3. Flap Gate

#### 2.4. Transition Process Accident

## 3. Transition Process Test Research Method

#### 3.1. Field Test Method

#### 3.2. Model Test

^{3}open reservoir, 25 m

^{3}vacuum (pressure) box, 2 m × 2.0 m × 4.0 m movable steel box, 25 m

^{3}pressure box, φ500 return pipe, 60 m

^{3}water-regulating pool, etc. Regarding power equipment, in addition to the 40 kW power unit, there is a 30 kW tubular auxiliary pump and a vacuum pump. The pump device model is shown in Figure 21.

## 4. Numerical Calculation Method

#### 4.1. Numerical Solution of External Characteristics

#### 4.2. Numerical Solution of Internal Characteristics

#### 4.2.1. Sliding Mesh

#### 4.2.2. Dynamic Mesh

#### 4.2.3. Boundary Conditions

#### 4.2.4. User-Defined Functions

## 5. Conclusions and Prospect

- (1)
- In the start-up stage, centrifugal pumps, axial flow pumps, bulb-tubular pumps, shaft-tubular pumps, and so on are the most studied, which all involve increasing the impeller speed. The sliding mesh method is mainly used, and the dynamic updating of the mesh will lead to a decrease in the mesh quality. Therefore, the sliding mesh method is the main method to control the impeller speed. A tubular pumping station will also involve the opening of the gate. The opening time and speed of the gate are related to the success of the start-up. If the gate is opened late, the head of the unit rises sharply in a short time, thereby leading to the failure of the start-up. If the gate is opened early, backflow will occur. To prevent the start-up head from being too large, the flap gate can be set for diversion, thereby reducing the start-up head. The siphon axial flow pump station is special, and its start-up transition process is divided into four stages: the hydraulic gas drive stage, the weir flow stage, the siphon formation stage, and the stable operation stage.
- (2)
- During the shutdown process, the main cut-off mode of the pump station is the fast gate. If the gate closed too fast, it will produce a large impact, damage the gate, or cause a pumping station’s violent vibration; if the gate is closed too slowly, it will cause a water backflow phenomenon, resulting in runaway. Optimizing the gate-closing law to ensure that no runaway occurs during the shutdown is our main research task.
- (3)
- The research on the transition process is mainly based on the combination of numerical simulations and experiments. The reliability of a numerical simulation is verified by an experiment. A numerical simulation can measure some parameters that cannot be measured by an experiment. For the study of the transition process, most scholars focus on the study of the change in the external characteristic parameters and the internal flow pattern and pressure pulsation during the start–stop process, how to determine the time of the transition process, and how to select the impeller and the gate. The most suitable speed time-matching procedure is still meagre, and future research should be directed in this direction to ensure the best opening and closing laws.
- (4)
- The realizable model and SST turbulence model are widely used in calculation. The inlet and outlet boundary conditions are mostly the mass flow inlet, the pressure outlet, or the pressure inlet and outlet. Due to the characteristics of the low-lift pumps, the influence of gravity is considered. The solution algorithm can use SIMPLE, SIMPLEC, and Double methods, but the most commonly used is the SIMPLEC method. The layered grid in the dynamic grid based on UDF control is used to control the opening of the gate, and the sliding grid method controlled by UDF is used to control the change in speed. The three-dimensional numerical simulation also has some shortcomings. It relies too much on the experience of the calculator. The selection of the turbulence model, boundary conditions, control methods, etc., is an important part of the calculation process. Secondly, it also relies on a powerful computer system. The transition process of the whole device takes a long time and requires a long calculation time as well. The improvement of calculations and the continuous optimization of the calculation methods constitute the development direction for CFD numerical simulation technology in the future.
- (5)
- To ensure the normal operation of the pumping station and prevent the occurrence of water hammer accidents, it is not only necessary to design the best opening and closing times and an optimal operation law of the gate of the pumping station but also to select excellent water hammer elimination equipment in the design of the pumping station. It is necessary to ardently prevent power failure, to regularly patrol the line tower, and to accurately measure grounding resistance and insulation resistance. The hidden dangers of the lines inside the plant must be inspected in a timely manner. During operations, the personnel on duty should maintain good records of the inspection of each distribution room in order to find and solve problems in advance.

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Conflicts of Interest

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**Figure 2.**Shaft extension pump device [8]. (

**a**) Front-positioned-shaft tubular pump device; (

**b**) 45°-inclined shaft extension pump device; (

**c**) vertical axial–flow pump with elbow inlet and low-hump outlet; (

**d**) guide vane mixed flow pump device with elbow inlet conduit and siphon outlet conduit.

**Figure 3.**Submersible pump device (rear motor submersible tubular pump device) [8].

**Figure 4.**Pressure change on impeller during startup [16].

**Figure 5.**The variation law of impeller speed, relative opening of fast gate, and flap gate [30].

**Figure 6.**Stage division in the exhaust process [31].

**Figure 8.**Time history curves of the key dynamic parameters of the pump during the runaway [35]. process.

**Figure 9.**Algorithm routines of the runaway transient simulation [35].

**Figure 10.**Diagram of flap valve types [68]. 1—Outlet channel, 2—Flap valve, 3—Vent, 4—Counterweight, 5—Buffer cylinder, 6—Buffer water cylinder, 7—Rocker arm hinge link, and 8—Diaphragm pier.

**Figure 11.**Field test of Chinese pump station [69]; (

**a**) Impeller installation; (

**b**) Signal acquisition; (

**c**) Pressure sensor placement; (

**d**) Pressure sensor; (

**e**) Experimental system.

**Figure 12.**The pump system of Huaiyin second station [74].

**Figure 13.**Multifunctional vertical pump closed test bench [76].

**Figure 14.**Mechanical four-quadrant multifunctional test bench [77]. (

**a**) Pump model system diagram. (

**b**) Inlet conduit physical map. (

**c**) Outlet bend physical map. (

**d**) Physical drawing of the outflow channel.

**Figure 15.**Schematic diagram of the transient characteristic experimental set-up [78]. 1. Vacuum pump; 2. Ball valve; 3. Cavitation-tank; 4. Water inlet; 5. Turbine flowmeter; 6. Water outlet; 7. Butterfly bumper; 8. Buffer tank.

**Figure 16.**The model pump [78].

**Figure 17.**Sensor measurement point layout [78].

**Figure 18.**Illustration of the experiment pump (vertical pipe pump) [79].

**Figure 19.**Diagram of the experiment (units are mm) [79].

**Figure 20.**Illustration of the local resistance flowmeter [79]. (

**a**) The schematic diagram. (

**b**)Three sizes for the orifice plate.

**Figure 22.**Particle image velocimetry technique (The figure is from https://zhuanlan.zhihu.com/p/446486019 accessed on 2 November 2022.).

**Figure 23.**PIV test site [87]. (

**a**) Camera placement position (

**b**) Transparent glass window. (

**c**) Laser incident window.

**Figure 24.**Characteristics of the pump [108].

**Figure 25.**Grid motion of outlet channel gate with additional flap gate [29].

**Figure 28.**Velocity vector at the turbine inlet [119]. (

**a**) Without considering the free surface; (

**b**) considering the free surface.

**Figure 29.**Pressure distribution at the inlet of the turbine [119]. (

**a**) Without considering the free surface; (

**b**) considering the free surface.

**Figure 30.**The initial flow field of the calculated domain [35].

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## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Ge, X.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, J.; Liu, D.; Zheng, Y.; Chen, H.
Review of Research on the Three-Dimensional Transition Process of Large-Scale Low-Lift Pump. *Energies* **2022**, *15*, 8338.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en15228338

**AMA Style**

Ge X, Zhang J, Zhang J, Liu D, Zheng Y, Chen H.
Review of Research on the Three-Dimensional Transition Process of Large-Scale Low-Lift Pump. *Energies*. 2022; 15(22):8338.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en15228338

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Ge, Xinfeng, Jing Zhang, Jian Zhang, Demin Liu, Yuan Zheng, and Huixiang Chen.
2022. "Review of Research on the Three-Dimensional Transition Process of Large-Scale Low-Lift Pump" *Energies* 15, no. 22: 8338.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en15228338